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angle of emergence Apennine limestone arch Auletta axis azimuth base Basilicata beds beneath breccia brick buildings built Calabria calcareous Campanile centre of gravity Certosa church clays Coll cretaceous deposits diagonal Diano direction of wave-path dislocation earthquake effects elevation end wall fall fallen feet per second fissures flank floor force fracture height hill inches inertia joists kingdom of Naples length less limestone masonry mass Melfi miles Monte Monte Acuto mortar mountain movement Naples nearly vertical north and south north to south observed oscillation overthrown overturned Padula Paestum parallel parallelopiped passing path piano plain plane Polla portion Pozzuoli produced projected quoin rock roof round Royal Society rubble Saponara Sarconi second semiphase seismic side walls slope steep stone strata subnormal wave sufficient summit surface Tanagro thick thrown tiles tion tower town transverse tufa valley Vallone velocity vibration wave transit wave-path whole
Page iii - Post 8vo, cloth, 7s. 6d. MALLET (ROBERT}— GREAT NEAPOLITAN EARTHQUAKE OF 1857. ^First Principles of Observational Seismology, as developed in the Report to the Royal Society of London, of the Expedition made into the Interior of the Kingdom of Naples, to investigate the circumstances of the great Earthquake of December, 1857.
Page 7 - ... and largeness of a disciplined imagination and eye that are amongst the accomplishments of the physical field geologist ; thus finally uniting our knowledge derived from both directions, ultimately to form a clear conception of what is the function of the earthquake in the Cosmos, and to recognise the connection, fitness, order, and beauty, even of the volcano and the earthquake, as parts of the machinery of a wondrous and perfect creation. Like every aspect of nature that we obtain with the...
Page 35 - first enters upon one of those earthquake-shaken towns, he finds himself in the midst of utter confusion. The eye is bewildered by 'a city become an heap.' He wanders over masses of dislocated stone and mortar, with timbers half buried, prostrate, or standing stark up against the light, and is appalled by spectacles of desolation. . . . Houses seem to have been precipitated to the ground in every direction of azimuth. There seems no governing law, nor any indication of a prevailing direction of...
Page 7 - ... well-founded expectation of ultimately obtaining clear and certain ideas as to the material and state of the internal mass of our planet, and comprehending the true nature and relations of volcanic agency. " By the second order of inquiry we seek to determine the modifying and moulding power of an earthquake upon the surface of our world as we now find it ; to trace its effects and estimate their power and extent upon man's habitation and upon himself. The first order of inquiry must be pursued...
Page 36 - Houses seem to have been precipitated to the ground in every direction of azimuth. There seems no governing law, nor any indication of a prevailing direction of overturning force. It is only by first gaining some commanding point, whence a general view over the whole field of ruin can be had, and observing its places of greatest and least destruction, and then by patient examination, compass in hand, of many details of overthrow, house by house and street by street, analysing each detail and comparing...
Page 374 - Now there are two distinct trains of earthquake causation, by either of which bodies may be twisted on their bases. First, by the action of a single shock, when the centre of adherence of the base of the object, lies to one side or other of the vertical plane passing through the centre of gravity, and the line of the wavepath.
Page 7 - The observation of each of these classes of effects bears reference to two distinct orders of seismic inquiry. " By the first, we seek to obtain information as to the depth beneath the surface of the earth at which those forces (whether volcanic or otherwise) are in action, whose throbbings are made known to us by the earthquake, and thus to make one great and reliable step towards a knowledge of the nature of these forces themselves ; and this is the great and hopeful aspect in * Vol.
Page 8 - ... Neapolitan earthquake of December 16, 1857. Leaving Naples on February 10, he spent several weeks visiting the ruined towns and villages of the meizoseismal area, heedless of the many discomforts of a camp life during the wet and cold of winter, convinced that in fractured walls and overthrown pillars he had " the most precious data for determining the velocities and directions of the shocks that produced them...
Page 375 - ... the hands of a watch. If the tilting up, had been produced by the second semiphase, of the same shock from east to west, then the pyramid would have risen upon the western edge of its base, and the same direction (north to south) of second shock, would have produced rotation upon that edge, but in a contrary direction to the preceding, or from right to left, or against the hands of a watch.
Page 94 - Indeed it was evident that had the towns generally been substantially and well built or rather the materials scientifically put together, very few buildings would have actually been shaken down even in those localities where the shocks were most violent. Thus the frightful loss of life and limb were as much to be attributed to the ignorance and imperfection displayed in the domestic architecture of the people, as to the unhappy natural condition of their country as regards earthquakes.
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