Applied Geochemistry in the 1980's

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Iain Thornton, R. Howarth, Richard John Howarth
Springer Science & Business Media, May 1, 1986 - Science - 347 pages
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Contents

Its Achievements and Potential in Mineral Exploration
3
Achievements of exploration geochemistry
4
THE LITERATURE ON EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY
5
TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY
11
PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS AND THE STATUS OF GEOCHEMISTRY IN EXPLORATION
18
Potential of geochemistry in mineral exploration
24
EMPIRICISM AND FUNDAMENTALISM
26
DEVELOPMENT OF VARIOUS TECHNIQUES
27
The Future Role of InductivelyCoupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry in Applied Geochemistry
191
Analytical characteristics of ICPAES
192
SIMULTANEOUS MULTIELEMENT ANALYSIS
193
LONG LINEAR CALIBRATIONS
194
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
195
LOW ABUNDANCE ELEMENTS
196
INTERFERENCE EFFECTS
197
PRECONCENTRATION
199

Conclusions
32
References
35
A Perspective on the Application of Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration South of the Equator
39
Typical applications of geochemistry in mineral exploration in the Southern Hemisphere
41
Specific Southern Hemisphere developments in geochemical exploration
50
Status of geochemical exploration in the Southern Hemisphere
55
Future developments
56
Conclusion
57
A Special Problem
60
Geology of gold deposits
61
Geochemistry of gold
63
Geochemical exploration practice
64
Analytical procedures
72
GLACIAL OVERBURDEN
73
DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD IN HUMUS
77
DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD IN STREAM SEDIMENTS
78
HEAVY MINERAL CONCENTRATE
80
Discussion and conclusions
82
References
84
Detection of Concealed Mineral and Energy Resources by Vapour Geochemistry
86
Dispersion
87
Methods
88
Case histories
89
DRAGOON OIL FIELD COLORADO
90
RABBIT HILLS FIELD MONTANA
91
DRILLSITE TEST PROGRAMME
93
JOHNSON CAMP ARIZONA
97
Discussion and conclusions
101
Regional Geochemistry in the Detection and Modelling of Mineral Deposits
103
Sampling as a basis for the detection and conceptual modelling of metalliferous mineralization
104
The geological framework of northern Scotland
108
The application of geochemical data to mineral exploration in northern Scotland
109
MINERALIZATION OF THE GRANITE AND PORPHYRY ASSOCIATIONS
120
MINERALIZATION IN POSTOROGENIC OLD RED SANDSTONE BASINS
127
Discussion and conclusions
132
References
136
Geochemical Patterns in the Granitic Terrain of Zimbabwe
140
The application of lithogeochemistry
142
THE LEVIATHAN TONALITE
144
The application of multielement drainage reconnaissance
146
THE SABI TRIAL MULTIELEMENT GEOCHEMICAL DRAINAGE MAP
148
POLLUTION STUDIES AT SEKI URBAN DEVELOPMENT NEAR HARARE
155
Discussion
159
Conclusions
160
References
161
The Role of Computing in Applied Geochemistry
163
Sampling and search
166
Laboratory quality control
167
Database management
168
Mapping
176
The future
178
References
181
The Role of the Consulting Laboratory
185
Instrumental methods
186
INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA SPECTROMETRY
187
XRAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY
188
Methods for specific elements
189
PLATINUM METALS
190
Prospects for direct injection of solid samples and allied techniques
200
NEBULIZATION OF SLURRIES
202
RAMPHEATING AND DECREPITATION
204
Possible improvements in costeffectiveness of ICPAES
206
AUTOMATION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
207
Fundamental developments in ICP instrumentation
208
APPLICATIONS OF THE ICP OTHER THAN IN ATOMIC EMISSION
209
Conclusions
210
Exploration Geochemistry in the Shallow Marine Environment
212
Geochemical surveying
213
BEDROCK MINERALIZATION
221
PHOSPHORITES
229
Shallow submarine hydrothermal activity and the zonation of Fe Mn and trace metals in associated sediments
230
General observations and conclusions
237
References
239
Geochemical Exploration for Deep Sea Mineral Deposits
241
Metalliferous sediments
243
MIDOCEAN RIDGES
245
ISLAND ARCS
246
Manganese nodules and encrustations
252
Conditions of formation of potentially economic nodules and crusts of relevance in marine geochemical exploration for the deposits
253
Summary and conclusions
256
References
257
Geochemistry and Animal Health
260
Cobalt
265
Selenium and vitamin E
266
Conclusions
268
Implications for the Community
270
Natural and manmade inputs of metal in the environment
273
Agriculture
275
LEAD ZINC AND CADMIUM
279
THE SOILPLANTANIMAL RELATIONSHIP
284
Soil microbiology
285
EFFECTS OF METAL CONTAMINANTS ON NITROGEN CYCLING BACTERIA
286
RESISTANCE PATTERNS TO METALS OF POPULATIONS OF BACTERIA IN CONTAMINATED AND NATURALLY METALRICH LAND
289
Water resources
292
Urban pollution
297
Human health
303
The future
305
References
306
Potential and Problems in Using Shellfish as Geochemical Indicators in the Marine Environment
309
The indicating ability of mussels and oysters
310
The role of zinc and copper in mussels and oysters
312
What are the advantages of using molluscs?
314
OYSTERS IN SOUTH AFRICA
317
MUSSELS
321
Some problems in using shellfish as geochemical indicators and possible solutions
322
SEASON
325
SAMPLING POSITION
327
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
328
METALMETAL INTERACTION
329
Wet weight or dry weight?
330
Future plans involving the use of shellfish as monitoring organisms
332
INTERNATIONAL MONITORING PROGRAMMES
333
Geochemistry and Human Health in the 1980s
337
References
344
Concluding Address
346
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