Spain's First Democracy: The Second Republic, 1931-1936
The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. Stanley Payne brings his immense knowledge of Spanish history to bear on the five-year span of the Second Republic as a historic entity in its own right. In Spain's First Democracy, he argues that the Republic was one of the major national attempts at political democratization and reform in Europe between the World Wars and represented the most important effort to swim against the tide during Europe's "era of fascism."
Payne's detailed study places the Republic within the historical framework of Spanish liberalism and the rapid modernization of interwar Europe, which was unlike any other period in Spain's history. Payne discusses the Republicans' efforts to establish Spain's first democratic political systems and to institute major reforms within the Republic. In highlighting reforms in politics and government, church-state relations, education and culture, public works, military affairs, and society as a whole, he assesses the successes and failures of these reforms as well as the reasons for their limitations. He also examines the economic and foreign policy issues of the period.
Focusing particularly on political conflict and social cleavage, Payne brilliantly explores the sources and character of the political polarization that developed as a result of the assaults on the Republic from the Left and the Right. He identifies the main political actors in this schism and their role in the eventual breakdown of the Republic. Tracing the progressive collapse of the Republican polity in the first half of 1936, Payne stresses the importance of political violence in the democracy's downfall.
In restoring perspectives that have been ignored or bypassed, Payne presents a consistent and detailed interpretation of Spain's Second Republic, demonstrating its striking parallels to the Weimar Republic in Germany.
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The Republican Transition 19301931
The Republican Constitution
The Republican Reforms
Waning of the Left Republican Coalition
Economic Policy and Performance
Resurgence of the Right 19331934
The Revolutionary Insurrection of 1934
Government by the CenterRight 19341935
agrarian reform Alcala Zamora alliance anarchist April army arrested Assault Guards Asturias autonomy Azana Barcelona Basque Besteiro Calvo Sotelo Carlist Catalan Catalonia Catholic CEDA Chapaprieta Church Civil Guard coalition Communist conservative Constituent Cortes constitutional declared decree democracy democratic deputies dictatorship economic elections electoral España Espanola Esquerra Falange Falangists fascist February forces Franco Gil Robles goal groups Historia Indalecio Prieto insurrection Izquierda Izquierda Republicana Jose July June killed labor land Largo Caballero later leaders left Republicans leftist legislation Lerroux liberal Madariaga Madrid major Manuel Manuel Azaña Martinez Barrio Maura Memorias ment military Ministry moderate monarchist Obrera October officers organized parliament parliamentary Partido percent pesetas política political Popular Front Portela president Prieto prime minister Primo de Rivera provinces Radicals regime Republic República Madrid revolution revolutionary rightist sectors Segunda República Seville social Socialist Spain Spanish Straperlo strike tion violence vote workers
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