Human Thermal Environments: The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort and Performance, Second Edition

Front Cover
CRC Press, Dec 26, 2002 - Technology & Engineering - 527 pages
2 Reviews
Our responses to our thermal environment have a considerable effect on our performance and behavior, not least in the realm of work. There has been considerable scientific investigation of these responses and formal methods have been developed for environmental evaluation and design. In recent years these have been developed to the extent that detailed national and international standards of practice have now become feasible.

This new edition of Ken Parson's definitive text brings us back up to date. He covers hot, moderate and cold environments, and defines these in terms of six basic parameters: air temperature, radiate temperature, humidity, air velocity, clothing worn, and the person's activity. There is a focus on the principles and practice of human response, which incorporates psychology, physiology and environmental physics with applied ergonomics. Water requirements, computer modeling and computer-aided design are brought in, as are current standards. Special populations, such as the aged or disabled and specialist environments such as those found in vehicles are also considered.
This book continues to be the standard text for the design of environments for humans to live and work safely, comfortably and effectively, and for the design of materials which help the same people cope with their environments.
  

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Contents

Human thermal environments
1
BASIC PARAMETERS
2
THE HEAT BALANCE EQUATION FOR THE HUMAN BODY
16
EXAMPLE CALCULATION
22
A PRACTICAL APPROACH
28
Human thermal physiology and thermoregulation
31
THE THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HUMAN BODY
32
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES
39
WHOLEBODY THERMAL COMFORT
197
THERMAL MODELS AND THERMAL COMFORT
215
DO REQUIREMENTS FOR COMFORT UNIVERSALLY APPLY?
221
Thermal comfort for special populations special environments and adaptive modelling
229
BABIES CHILDREN THE SICK AND THE PREGNANT
236
BEHAVIOURAL THERMOREGULATION THERMAL COMFORT AND THE ADAPTIVE MODEL
237
Heat stress
258
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO HEAT
259

BEHAVIOURAL THERMOREGULATION
44
BODY TEMPERATURE
46
Psychological responses
49
PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS
51
THERMAL SENSATION
53
THERMORECEPTION
54
SEMANTICS PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING
61
MOOD AGGRESSION DEPRESSION AND OTHER PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS
63
DISCUSSION
69
Dehydration and water requirements
71
BODY WATER
72
DEHYDRATION MEASURES
73
BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS BIA
83
DEHYDRATION LIMITS
84
PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DRINKING
87
Measurement methods and assessment techniques
93
MEASURING KITS AND COMPOSITE INSTRUMENTS
109
MEASUREMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
112
MEASUREMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES
122
THE THERMAL INDEX AN ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE
128
Metabolic heat production
131
ESTIMATION OF METABOLIC HEAT PRODUCTION
134
THE USE OF TABLES AND DATABASES
140
EMPIRICAL MODELS
143
SUBJECTIVE METHODS
144
SPECIAL POPULATIONS CHILDREN PEOPLE WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES AND PEOPLE WEARING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND E...
148
The thermal properties of clothing
156
A SIMPLE CLOTHING MODEL
157
THE TWOPARAMETER MODEL
165
DETERMINATION OF THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CLOTHING
179
CLOTHING SPECIFICATION AND THE WINDOW OF APPLICATION
195
Thermal comfort
196
Heat disorders
261
ACCLIMATIZATION
287
Cold stress
293
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO COLD
294
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO COLD
297
COLD STRESS INDICES
300
CASE STUDY OF COLD WORK IN A HOSPITAL PLATING AREA
321
Interference with activities performance and productivity
326
FACTORY OUTPUT AND ACCIDENTS
328
PERFORMANCE MODELS AND INDICES
339
A RATIONAL PERFORMANCE MODEL
344
Human skin contact with hot moderate and cold surfaces
350
SKIN CONTACT WITH A HOT SURFACE ANALYSIS OF THE EVENT
351
MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF HEAT TRANSFER
363
DISCUSSION
376
SURFACES OF MODERATE TEMPERATURE
382
COLD SURFACES
384
International Standards
388
STANDARDS UNDER DEVELOPMENT
415
STANDARDS IN THE USA
421
STANDARDS IN THE UK
427
EUROPEAN STANDARDS CEN
431
EXAMPLE OF THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ISO STANDARDS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF A HOT ENVIRONMENT
432
EXAMPLE OF THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ISO STANDARDS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MODERATE ENVIRONMENTS
434
EXAMPLE OF THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ISO STANDARDS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF COLD ENVIRONMENTS
435
Thermal models and computer aided design
438
THERMAL MODELS
439
DO MODELS WORK?
466
Fundamentals of heat transfer
478
References
483
Index
518
Copyright

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Human Thermal Environments Laboratory receivespresidents ...
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About the author (2002)

Ken Parsons is Head of the Human Thermal Environments Laboratory, which was awarded the 2001 President's Medal by the Ergonomics Society, and Head of the Department of Human Sciences, at Loughborough University. Winner of the 1992 Ralph G Nevins award from ASHRAE, he is Chairman and Convenor of British, European and International Standards committees, Co-Editor in Chief of the journal Applied Ergonomics, Secretary to the Thermal Factors Committee of the International Commission on Occupational Health, and a founder member of the UK Clothing Science Group and European Society for Protective Clothing

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