Latvia as an Independent State
Dr. Alfred Bilmanis LATVIA As an Independent State Top of Latvias Monument of Liberty PUBLISHED BY THE LATVIAN LEGATION WASHINGTON, D. C. 1947 Printed in U-S A. Price, 5.00 Riga, The Capital of Latvia PREFACE A handbook on Latvia is being published at this time to satisfy many requests from interested Americans who would like to knoiv more than is offered by some diction aries, yearbooks and almanacs, etc., about Latvias geo graphy, population, history, administration, cultural and economic life and international position. The facts reviewed in this book are compiled from works of Latvian scientists, official pjiblications, geo graphical and guide books. This publication is actually a revised edition of the authors LATVIA IN THE MAKING which first appeared in 1928, and is out of print. The Author Washington, D. C. KANSAS CITY. MO. PUBLIC LIBRAR D ODD1 iii ., v, JVIEHNA . Nk. --.- Baltic States Geographical Relation to Other European Countries iv TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Preface iii Introductory Latvian Geographical Names 1 Geography 8 Position in Europe. Frontiers. Maps. Area. Surface. Ge ology. Climate. Hydrography. Rivers. Lakes. Marshes. Forests. Trees in Latvian Folklore. Flora. Most Popular Flowers. Fauna. Natural Resources. Landscape. Rural Life. Demography 24 Racial Characteristics. Influence of Climate and Geography on Character of Inhabitants. Density of Population. Growth of Population. Age Distribution. Comparative Vital Statistics. Infant Mortality. Racial Distribution of Inhabitants. Historical Background 33 New Light on Latvias Past. Political Annals. Political Movement. Revolution of 1905. Russification Renewed in 1908. Secession from Russia. National Council. Soviet andGerman Invasion Repulsed. International Recognition. Citizenship Law. Foreign Passports. Consuls Abroad. State Insignia 57 Flag. Coat of Arms. Decorations. National Anthem. Legal Holidays. Monetary Systems. Postage Stamps. Constitution of 1922 75 The President. The Saeima. Amendment of Constitution. Government. Courts of Law. Control. Constitutional Reform 80 State Administration 84 Chief Executive. Cabinet of Ministers. State Chancery. State Comptroller. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Ministry of Finance. Ministry of Interior. Ministry of Education. Min istry of War. Ministry of Public Affairs. Ministry of Communi cations. Ministry of Public Welfare. Ministry of Justice. Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Ministry of Agricul ture. Municipalities. Social Organizations. Judicial System 90 Appointment of Judges. Civil Procedure. Bar Association. Notaries Public. Law Codes. Civil Code. Penal Code. Family Rights. Inheritance Rights. Legal Aspects. Latvia and International Law. PAGE Administrative Division 114 Provinces. Districts. Pagasti. Cities. Chief Cities in Latvia. Riga, the Capital. Growth of Rigas Population. Growth of Latvian Population in Riga. Growth of Industries. Largest Provincial Cities. Liepaja. Ventspils. Jelgava. Latgallian Cities. Picturesque Townships and Hamlets. Castle Mounds. Cultural Life 130 Language. Philology. Folklore. The Ligo Day. Olde t Printed Texts. Literature. Sources. Publications in 1937. Books. Types of Books. Cultural Activities. Translations and Reference Literature in English. Copyright. Spelling of Latvian Family Names. Press 152 Newspapers. Magazines. Press and Law. Press and World War II. State Printing Office. Sources. Science and Scientists 157Arts 160 Popular Arts. Industrial Arts. Architecture. Painting. Sculpture. Popularization of Arts. Music. The Church 170 Historical Background.. T Legislation. German Lutherans-Separatists. Catholic Archdiocese Reestablished . Greek-Orthodox Church. Religious Situation During the Second World War. Sources. Education 187 School System. Basic Principles. Character of School Work. Self-Activity. The Mazpulki. Junior Red Cross. Child Health. Friendly Appeal. Higher Education. Peoples Universities. General Statistics. Analphabetism...
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