The Kitan Language and Script

Front Cover
BRILL, 2009 - Social Science - 305 pages
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The Kitans established the Liao dynasty in northern China, which lasted for over two centuries (916-1125). In this survey the reader will find what is currently known about the Kitan language and scripts. The language was very likely distantly related to Mongolian, with two quite different scripts in use. A few generations after their state was defeated, almost all trace of the Kitan spoken and written languages disappeared, except a few words in Chinese texts. Over the past few decades, however, inscriptions from the tombs of the Liao emperors and the Kitan aristocracy have been at least partially deciphered, resulting in a significant increase of our knowledge of the Kitan lexicon, morphology and syntax.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Kitan words in Chinese works
2
13 Creation of the Kitan scripts
3
15 The Kitan inscriptions
4
17 The Yelü clan and the Xiao clan
5
19 Reign titles of Liao emperors
6
111 The ten stems and twelve branches
7
114 The twelve animals
8
iu not to exist to die
157
a
158
450 Notes on Liao reign titles
159
451 Some comments on the word for Kitan
162
452 Some comments on the word for Jurchen
165
The Kitan large script
167
52 Sources
168
53 Early research until 2000
169

116 Early Chinese research
12
118 Japanese research
14
119 Russian and other research
15
121 Research on Kitan words in Chinese sources
19
122 Research since Research
20
123 Other research
25
124 Transcription of the small Kitan script
26
125 Transcription of logographs
27
129 Similar but different graphs
28
131 Graphs only used to write Chinese
29
134 Syllables of the VC type
30
137 Inherent vowels
32
138 Possible multiple readings of Kitan graphs
33
Analysis of the Kitan small graphs
35
EnglishKitan glossary
83
Morphology
131
42 The genitive in an
132
44 The genitive in in
133
45 The genitive in on
134
47 The genitive in n
135
49 The genitive in i
136
411 The dativelocative in do
137
412 The dativelocative in du
138
416 The plural in t
140
418 The plural in od
141
421 Other plurals
142
424 Ordinal numbers used with masculine nouns
143
past tense of verbs
144
429 The past tense in ar
145
431 The past tense in or
146
433 The past tense in bon bun bun
147
434 The causativepassive in leha lege
148
435 Causatives and passives in context
149
437 The converb in sii
150
438 Converbs in context
151
439 The converb in al
153
441 Finite verbs and converbs in context
154
442 Verbal nouns in vowel + n
155
pu bu to be
156
54 Recent research since 2000
171
55 The five elements five colours
176
59 Numerals
177
511 Glossary of basic words in the Kitan large script
182
Texts in the Kitan small script
185
62 Chinese text of the Langjun inscription
186
64 The Epitaph of Yelü Dilie
190
66 Kitan text of the Epitaph of Yelü Dilie
191
67 Partial translation of the Epitaph of Yelü Dilie
211
68 Kitan text of the Eulogy for Empress Xuanyi
214
69 Translation of Chinese text of the Eulogy for Empress Xuanyi
223
Liao Chinese
227
72 Northeastern China during the Late Tang
228
74 Middle Chinese
229
75 Synoptic chart of transcription symbols for MC initials
230
76 Transcription of MC finals
231
78 Late Tang Northwestern Chinese
232
710 The Qieyun zhizhangtu
233
711 The Huangji jingshi shu
234
712 The fanqie spellings of Zhu Xi
235
714 Xixia transcriptions
236
715 The Zhongyuan yinyun
237
716 The Menggu ziyun
238
717 Uighur and Xixia transcriptions of Chinese
239
719 Rhymes in Liao poetry
240
720 Development of rhyme groups from Late Tang to Yuan
241
721 Finals in Liao Chinese
243
722 The question of the glottal stop
252
723 Finals derived from MC final stops in Kitan transcription
253
725 Initials of Liao Chinese
255
726 Conclusions
260
727 The phonological system of Liao Chinese
261
728 Suggested Liao Chinese readings
262
Postscript
265
Bibliography
269
Index
295
Index of graphs
301
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

About the author (2009)

Daniel Kane, Ph.D (1975) (ANU) is Professor of Chinese at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. His previous book on a related language was The Sino-Jurchen Vocabulary of the Bureau of Interpreters (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, 1988).