Air Transportation Systems Engineering

Front Cover
AIAA, 2001 - Aeronautics - 732 pages
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Contents

Introduction
1
US and European ATM SystemsSimilarities and Differences
7
Air Traffic Management CapacityDriven Operational Concept Through 2015
9
III Operational Concept Development
10
IV Functions Agents and Performance
11
V ATM System Functional Structure
12
VI Capacity Safety and Separation Assurance
14
VII CapacityDriven Operational Concept
17
III Simulation A Software
387
IV Results A Traffic Density
389
V Discussion
394
VI Concluding Remarks
395
References
396
Performance Measures for Future Architecture
397
II Architecture
398
IV Architecture and Performance
399

IX En Route and Outer Terminal Area
19
X ApproachDeparture Transition
20
XI Final Approach
22
XII Surface
23
XIV Conclusions
24
Comparison of US and European Airports and Airspace to Support Concept Validation
27
II Assessment Territory
29
V Conclusion
46
Performance Review in Europe
49
III European Challenge
50
IV Other Limitations on Growth
57
V Conclusions
58
United States and European Airport Capacity Assessment Using the GMU Macroscopic Capacity Model
61
II MCM Approach
62
III MCM Validation
64
VI Conclusions
71
References
72
Economics of Congestion
75
Forecasting and Economic Analysis for Aviation Systems Engineering
77
II Evaluating National Impacts of ATM Investments
79
IV Generating a Constrained Forecast
81
V Estimating and Closing the Performance Gap
84
VI Estimating Airline Benefits from ATM Investments
87
VII Overview of the Air Carrier CostBenefit Model
88
VIII Derivation of the Air Carrier CostBenefit Model
90
IX LVLASO Scenario
97
X Conclusions
102
Impact of Air Traffic Management on Airspace User Economic Performance
103
II Airline Cost Drivers and ATM Actions
104
III Estimates of SystemWide Excess Cost to Airlines
106
Fleet Utilization and ATM Improvements
110
The Influence of ATM on DemandRelated Airline Decisions
111
VI Conclusions
113
References
114
Effects of Schedule Disruptions on the Economics of Airline Operations
115
II Scope of Disruptions
117
III Alternatives Available to the Airlines for Handling Disruptions
118
V Snowstorm Event at Boston
119
VI Aggregated Costs of Disruptive Events
121
VII Conclusions
125
Modeling an Airline Operations Control Center
127
II Modeling Structure and Hypotheses
128
III Model Identification and Calibration
132
IV Conclusions
141
Pricing Policies for Air Traffic Assignment
143
II Model Formulation
144
III Identification Problem
147
IV Optimization Problem
148
VI Numerical Experiments
150
VII Conclusion and Future Work
156
References
157
Collaborative Decision Making
159
Improved Information Sharing A Step Toward the Realization of Collaborative Decision Making
161
II Collaborative Decision Making
162
V Airport Operational Aspects
165
VI Information Gaps
166
VII Issues Outstanding
173
VIII Conclusions
175
Air Traffic ControlAir Carrier Collaborative Arrival Planning
177
ATCAir Carrier Information Exchange
180
III Future Research A Airline to ATC Information Sharing
185
IV Human Factors Issues Associated with ATCAirline Collaborative Tools
187
References
188
Data Flow Analysis and Optimization Potential from Gate to Gate
191
II Definitions A Business Process
192
IV ATM Process Model Simulations
195
V Identification of Potentials
198
VI Conclusions
201
References
203
Effect of Shared Information on PilotController and ControllerController
205
II Why Humans Are Necessary in ATM
206
III ATM Interaction Architecture
208
IV Interaction Assumptions
209
VI Shared Information in PilotAirline Interactions
214
VII Shared Information in Intrafacility ControllerController Interactions
215
VIII Shared Information in CrossFacility ControllerController Interactions
217
IX Shared Information in AirlineATM Interactions
221
X Flight Information Object
222
XI Conclusions
223
Modeling Distributed Human Decision Making in Traffic Flow Management Operations
227
II TFM Operations and Implications for Modeling
228
III Baseline Schedule Disruption Scenarios Modeled by IMPACT
229
IV Airline and FAA Agents in IMPACT
231
VI Other Analyses with IMPACT
235
VII Conclusions
236
References
237
Assessing the Benefits of Collaborative Decision Making in Air Traffic Management
239
II Improvements in the Quality of Information and Information Distribution
240
III System and User Impact
245
IV Collaborative Routing
249
V Conclusions
250
Section IV Airport Operations and Constraints
251
FastTime Study of AirlineInfluenced Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling
253
II PriorityScheduling
254
III Scope
255
V Order Deviation
261
VI Simulation InputsOutputs
262
VII Results and Discussion
263
VIII Conclusions
266
References
267
CapacityRelated Benefits of Proposed Communication Navigation Surveillance and Air Traffic Management Technologies
269
III CapacityRelated Benefits Denned
271
IV Analysis Methodology Overview
272
V Model Assumptions and Results
278
VI Conclusions
279
References
286
Collaborative Optimization of Arrival and Departure Traffic Flow Management Strategies at Airports
289
I Introduction
290
II Mathematical Formulation
292
III Numerical Examples
295
IV Conclusions
302
References
303
Analysis Modeling and Control of Ground Operations at Hub Airports
305
II Available Data
307
III Models
314
IV Applications
331
V Conclusions
339
References
340
Conceptual Design of a Departure Planner Decision Aid
343
II Departure ProcessResults from Field Observations
344
III Overview of the Proposed Departure Planner Architecture and Operational Context
347
IV Conclusions
364
References
365
Modeling Air Traffic Management Automation Metering Conformance Benefits
367
II ATM Interruptions Model
368
III Illustrative Application
375
IV Conclusions
381
References
382
Airspace Operations and Constraints
383
Effect of Direct Routing on Air Traffic Control Capacity
385
II Workload and Capacity
386
V Analysis
401
VI Conclusions
407
Analytical Identification of Airport and Airspace Capacity Constraints
409
II Background
410
IV Definition of an Airspace Problem
412
V Data Sources
414
VII Conclusions
419
Operational Assessment of Free Flight Phase 1 Air Traffic Management Capabilities
421
II System Description
422
III Collaborative Approach
424
IV Metrics Definitions
425
V Measurement Process
429
VI Preliminary pFAST Results
430
VII Conclusions
434
References
435
CENAPHARE Experiment Requirements for Evaluation of Novel Concepts in Air Traffic Control
437
II Evaluation Methodology A Experimental Design
439
III Lessons Learned A Training Aspects
441
Requirements for Future Developments of Novel Concepts
445
V Conclusions
446
References
447
Restriction Relaxation Experiments Enabled by User Request Evaluation Tool
449
II URET Utilization
450
III URET Benefits
451
IV Conclusions
460
Safety and Free Flight
461
Accident Risk Assessment for Advanced Air Traffic Management
463
II Accident Risk Assessment Methodology
467
III Mathematical Framework
471
IV RNP1 in Conventional and Airborne Separation Assurance Scenario Examples
474
V Concluding Remarks
476
References
477
Human Cognition Modelling in Air Traffic Management Safety Assessment
481
II Human Modeling Approaches
483
III Modeling for En Route ATC
488
IV Reduction of the ATCo Model
497
V Example Application
503
VI Concluding Remarks
507
References
509
Probabilistic Wake Vortex Induced Accident Risk Assessment
513
II Risk Assessment Methodology
514
III Wake Vortex Risk Assessment
516
IV Single Runway Approach
519
V Concluding Remarks
524
Stochastic Wake Vortex Model
525
References
530
Free Flight in a Crowded Airspace?
533
III Air Traffic Growth
534
V Distrust in Distributed System
537
VI UnPredictability of a Distributed System
538
VII Complex Geometry Examples
539
VIII Robustness and Redundancy of a Distributed System
542
IX Effective Conflict Rate for Air and Ground
543
References
544
Managing Criticality of Airborne Separation Assurance Systems Applications
547
II Operational Safety Assessment of ASAS
548
III Operational Environment of ASAS Applications
551
IV Operational Hazards and Mitigating Factors Associated with ASAS
552
V Allocation of Safety Objectives and Requirements for ASAS Applications
556
VI ASAS Simulations and Trials
559
VII Conclusions and Future Work
560
Analysis of Aircraft Separation Minima Using a Surveillance State Vector Approach
563
II Model of a Separation Assurance Budget
564
III Need for Surveillance of Intent
566
IV State Vector Modeling Approach
567
V Intent States It
569
VI State Uncertainty
571
VII Relationships Between State Uncertainty and the Current Separation Minima
574
VIII Conformance Monitoring
577
IX Conclusions
581
Cognitive Workload Analysis and the Changing Role of the Air Traffic Controller
583
Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool Human Factors Operational Assessment
585
II Methods
586
III Results
589
IV Lessons Learned
593
V Concluding Remarks
596
Evaluating Taskload Measures Derived from Routinely Recorded Air Traffic Control Data
599
II Defining Controller Workload Taskload Sector Complexity and Performance
600
III Purpose of Study
603
V Results
606
VI Conclusions
609
References
613
Controller RolesTime to Change
615
II Controller Tools and Transition TrialsC3T
616
III C3T Study Concepts
617
IV ModelBased StudyHypothesis
618
VI RAMS Model
620
VIII RealTime SimulationHypotheses
622
IX RealTime SimulationPreliminary Results
623
X Conclusions
625
References
626
Trajectory Orientation TechnologyEnabled Concept Requiring Shift in Controller Roles and Responsibilities
627
II Background
628
III Trajectory Orientation Concep
629
IV Research Approach
632
V Results and Discussion
633
VI Conclusions
644
Emerging Issues in Aircraft SelfSeparation
647
Cooperative Optimal Airborne Separation Assurance in Free Flight Airspace
649
II Operational Methodology A Multiagent System Model
651
III Planning Algorithm
652
IV Computed Example
655
V Conclusions
660
References
662
Operational Efficiency of Maneuver Coordination Rules for Airborne Separation Assurance System
665
II Evaluation of Rule Systems
666
III Rule Design
667
IV Rule Evaluation Criteria
668
V Rule Evaluation
670
VI Human Factors and Rules
674
VII Conclusions
675
References
676
Probabilistic Approaches Toward Conflict Prediction
677
II Conflict Prediction Approaches
678
III Collision Risk Modeling
680
IV Comparison of Approaches
681
V Discussion of Results
689
VI Conclusions
692
References
693
Safe Flight 211999 Operational Evaluation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast Applications
695
II Operational Evaluation 1999
696
III Method of Test
699
IV Results
703
V Conclusions
711
References
712
Conclusions and Observations
713
III European Air Traffic Management System
714
V Safety Is Much Discussed But Little Analyzed
715
VI Air Traffic ControllerPilot Cognitive Workload Substitution Function
716
Subject Index
717
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