Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864
Beyond the Pass examines the fiscal and ethnic policies that underlay Qing imperial control over Xinjiang, a Central Asian region that now comprises the westernmost sixth of the People's Republic of China. By focusing on a region of the Qing empire beyond the borders of China proper, and by treating the empire not as a Chinese dynasty but in its broader context as an Inner Asian political entity, this innovative study fills a gap in Western-language historiography of late imperial China.
As analysis of the revenue available to Qing garrisons in Xinjiang reveals, imperial control over the region in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries depended upon sizeable yearly subsidies from China. In an effort to satisfy criticism of their expansion into Xinjiang and make the territory pay for itself, the Qing court permitted local authorities great latitude in fiscal matters and encouraged the presence of Han and Chinese Muslim merchants. At the same time, the court recognized the potential for unrest posed by Chinese mercantile penetration of this Muslim, Turkic-speaking area. They consequently attempted, through administrative and legal means, to defend the native Uyghur population against economic depredation. This ethnic policy reflected a conception of the realm that was not Sinocentric, but rather placed the Uyghur on a par with Hah Chinese.
Both this ethnic policy and Xinjiang's place in the realm shifted following a series of invasions from western Turkestan starting in the 1820's. Because of the economic importance of Chinese merchants and the efficacy of merchant militia in Xinjiang, the Qing court revised its policies in their favor, for the first time allowing permanent Hansettlement in the. area. At the same time, the court began to advocate provincehood and the Sinicization of Xinjiang as a resolution to the perennial security problem. These shifts, the author argues, marked the beginning of a reconception of China to include Inner Asian lands and peoples -- a notion that would, by the twentieth century, become a deeply held tenet of Chinese nationalism.
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It is not a review but a factual question to the author or publisher. The bibliography of this book mentioned a article by J. Dowson on the travel route of Khwajah Ahmud Shah Nukshbundee Syud published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland No.12 (1850): 372-85. How this particular article published in 1850 whereas Khwajah Ahmud Shah Nukshbundee Syud himself started his journey in 1852 for Central Asia?
FINANCING NEW DOMINION
The Yili military complex c 1809 78
OFFICIAL COMMERCE AND COMMERCIAL TAXATION IN
The Kalanggui karun and the route to Kokand
Xinjiang Military Deployment 77 Tea and the Beginnings
Growth of Commercial Taxation in Urumchi 176377
Sancheng Goes Too Far 105 Nayancengs TeaTax Plan 106
The raising of the siege at Blackwater Camp 32
Jade boulder carved with a scene of jade quarrying Qianlong period
Xinjiang Jade Tribute in the Qianlong and Jiaqing Periods
Merchants Dealing in Jadestone in Xinjiang and China Proper
QING ETHNIC POLICY AND CHINESE MERCHANTS
Page from the multilingual gazetteer of the Western Regions Xiyu tongwen zhi
Cover illustration from John King Fairbank ed The Chinese World Order
Gaozongs vision of the empire midQianlong reign
Sources of Official Monetary Revenue in Xinjiang c 1795
Chinese mercantile penetration
Hami and environs
The OpenGuan Policy 114
The Ush citadel Fuhua cheng and environs
Chinese Shops and Merchants in Xinjiang Cities
The Southern March 138 Manchu Cities or Chinese Cities?
Trade routes of north bend traders beitaoke and west road traders xiluke