The West Indies: Patterns of Development, Culture and Environmental Change Since 1492
This magisterial survey of the historical geography of the West Indies is at bottom concerned with the causes and consequences of three complex and inter-related phenomena: the rapid and total removal of a large aboriginal population; the development of plantation agriculture and the arrival of enforced labour, in the form of many thousands of African slaves; and the environmental, ecological and cultural changes that resulted. Dr Watts shows how the initial European vision of a land of plenty has been replaced by an awareness of the geographic and ecological fragiliaty of the area, and explains how the exploitative agricultural systems of the colonial and recent West Indies have not adjusted to the demands of the environment. An enormous array of historical, biological and literary sources are marshalled in support of Dr Watts' analysis, which is likely to remain the standard work on the subject for many years to come.
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Geology and surface features
Weather and climate
The vegetational response
Aboriginal peoples settlement and culture
The settlement of early indian groups
The extension of the West Indian sugar estate economy 1665 to 1833 I General development and trade
Prerequisites for the regional extension of plantation sugar cane agriculture
General trading patterns and controls of trade
The extension of the West Indian sugar estate economy 1665 to 1833 II Sugar production regional population growth and the slavewhite ratios
The regional expansion of sugar production
Regional population growth
Neoindian cultures at the time of European contact
The West Indies population in 1492
the 1492 situation
Spanish intrusion and colonisation
Preliminaries to Hispanic New World settlement
Espanola to 1509
The peak of Spanish settlement 1509 to 1519
the sixteenth century after 1519
Early northwest European plantations
settlements and lifestyles
St Kitts and Barbados
Expansion into other islands
The beginnings of North AmericanWest Indian trade
The situation in 1645
Northwest European sugar estates the formative period 1645 to 1665
The emergence and evolution of the Barbados sugar estate complex
Other estate cash crops
Socioeconomic consequences of the development of the Barbados sugarcane estate complex
The situation in 1665
The extension of the West Indian sugar estate economy 1665 to 1833 III Population social characteristics migration and the growth of towns
Social characteristics of the population
Regional migration patterns
The growth of towns
The extension of the West Indian sugar estate economy 1665 to 1833 IV Agricultural innovation and environmental change
The idealised sugar cane plantation
Environmental change and agricultural innovation 1665 to 1720
Mill innovation 1665 to 1833
The intensification of cane agriculture and further environmental changes 1720 to 1833
Post1833 adjustments the period to 1900
Cane estate expansion and renewal
The search for new crops
The initiation of a West Indian peasantry
Twentiethcentury trends and conclusions
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