Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism
What we now know of as environmentalism began with the establishment of the first empire forest in 1855 in British India, and during the second half of the nineteenth century, over ten per cent of the land surface of the earth became protected as a public trust. Sprawling forest reservations, many of them larger than modern nations, became revenue-producing forests that protected the whole 'household of nature', and Rudyard Kipling and Theodore Roosevelt were among those who celebrated a new class of government foresters as public heroes. Imperial foresters warned of impending catastrophe, desertification and global climate change if the reverse process of deforestation continued. The empire forestry movement spread through India, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and then the United States to other parts of the globe, and Gregory Barton's study looks at the origins of environmentalism in a global perspective.
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2 The great interference
3 Empire forestry and British India
4 Environmental innovation in British India
5 Empire forestry and the colonies
agriculture American appointed argued Australia Bombay Britain British East Africa British Empire Burma Campbell-Walker Canada Cape climate theory Conservator of Forests Cooper’s Hill Cyprus Dalhousie deforestation Dehra Dun Delhi demarcation Dietrich Brandis early ecological European fire protection Forest Act Forest Administration forest areas forest conservancy forest fires forest lands forest management forest officer forest product forest reserves forest service Forester 31 Forestry Conference forestry policy forests in India Government of India grazing harvest Historical Geography Hough ibid imperial Indian Forest Department Indian Forest Service Indian Forester 18 Inspector Journal legislation London Madras National Archives native Nigeria nineteenth century ofIndia Pegu percent Pinchot plantations plants practice Protected Forests Provinces Punjab Railways replanting Report reserved forest revenue Ribbentrop Royal Sargent Schlich settlement shifting cultivation Society soil South Africa South Australia square miles Stebbing survey teak United village wood Worster Zealand