Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes: History and Development
Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes: History and Development discusses the widely differing influences on the development of aerobic treatment such as water supply, toxic trade effluents, microscopy and population growth in urban areas. It covers the historical development of sewage treatment and the emergence of aerobic biological treatment from the early nineteenth century to the present day. The importance of water supply is examined and the influence this had on the water-carriage system, and the consequent discharge of sewage into rivers. The factors which govern process selection and process development are discussed. There is a continued impetus to reduce land area, capital costs, running costs, and to optimise performance and process control. The discovery of the activated sludge process is detailed including the development, in the early 1900s, of many forms of this process. Industrial wastes were discharged to biological treatment systems and the impact of such pollutants is reviewed. The work of Royal Commissions, River Boards and the National Rivers Authority is summarised, and the advances in chemical analysis and "on-line" measurement of chemical quality characteristics. Later developments such as reed beds and the use of hybrid treatment systems are covered. Examples are included such as the "fixed film" activated sludge process which has found application for small communities in package form, and also for large-scale municipal treatment plants. This book is valuable reading for students of the following courses on CIWEM Dip examination, WITA and B Tech and Environmental Science and Civil Engineering.
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activated sludge activated sludge plants activated sludge process aeration aerobic aerobic organisms ammonia application Ardern and Lockett bacteria bed biological filters Bolton and Klein contact bed Davyhulme diffused air disc downward filtration drainage Edward Frankland Frankland Haworth hectare improved incoming sewage increased industrial wastes installed Institute of Sewage land area required land treatment Lawrence Experiment Station load London m3 per day McGowan mg/L mixed liquor nitrate nitrification operation oxidation oxidised oxygen period pipes population produced pumps Quennell and Quennell result retention River Rom River Thames river water rotating Royal Commission settled sewage settlement sewage discharge sewage disposal sewage effluents sewage farming sewage flow Sewage Purification sewage treatment sewage treatment plants sewerage system shaft soil Stanbridge surface aeration surfactants suspended solids tank trade effluent treating sewage treatment of sewage utilisation volume of sewage water carriage system water closet water companies water mains water supply