Peasants, Citizens and Soldiers: Studies in the Demographic History of Roman Italy 225 BC–AD 100
Recent years have witnessed an intense debate concerning the size of the population of Roman Italy. This book argues that the combined literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence supports the theory that early-imperial Italy had about six million inhabitants. At the same time the traditional view that the last century of the Republic witnessed a decline in the free Italian population is shown to be untenable. The main foci of its six chapters are: military participation rates; demographic recovery after the Second Punic War; the spread of slavery and the background to the Gracchan land reforms; the fast expansion of Italian towns after the Social War; emigration from Italy; and the fate of the Italian population during the first 150 years of the Principate.
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Chapter 1 Evidence theories and models in Roman population history
Chapter 2 Polybius manpower figures and the size of the Italian population on the eve of the Hannibalic War
Chapter 3 Census procedures and the meaning of the republican and earlyimperial census figures
Chapter 4 Peasants citizens and soldiers 201 bc28 bc
Chapter 5 The Augustan census figures and Italys urban network
Chapter 6 Survey archaeology and demographic developments in the Italian countryside
according to Str adult male citizens allies Apulia archaeological evidence argued assume Augustus average Beloch Brunt Campanians Cascio censors cent central and southern central-western Italy Chapter Cisalpine Gaul citizen population Conventi decline demographic developments early Empire early-imperial Italy early-modern estimate Etruria Etruscans farms free Italian free population free rural population Gracchan land reforms Hannibalic War hectares high count Hopkins implied interpretation Italian Italian population iuniores Kron large number late Republic late-republican Latin Latium Ligt Livy Livy’s low count mainland Italy medium-sized towns military million northern number of adult p.ha period Polybius population densities population growth possible proletarians provincial reconstruction regions Roman citizens Roman Italy Rome Samnium Scheidel second century bc Second Punic Second Punic War seems slaves small according Social War southern Italy square kilometre suggests sui iuris theory total number town wall Umbria urban network urban population densities urbanization rate viritane walled area