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Nonfiction Usage Patent UsageA Process for Making Butyl Ethers of Glycols: Patented by Benjamin P. Gracey on October 21, 1999. Abstract: Processes are described for the preparation of glycol butyl ethers involving reaction of butadiene with saturated aliphatic glycols, separating the thus formed nndash; and secndash;butenyl glycol ethers and hydrogenating the nndash;butenyl glycol ethers. Additional features are the use in the first step of heterogeneous catalyst modified by alkylpyridinium quaternary ammonium, quaternary arsonium quaternary phosphonium counterions and/or the conversion of secndash;butenyl glycol ethers to butadiene and saturated aliphatic glycols.Aqueous Plastic Dispersions Presenting Increased Stability: Patented by Bernd Papenfuhs on April 13, 2000. Abstract: The invention relates to aqueous plastic dispersions containing latex particles which present anionic groups and are characterized in that at least some of the anionic groups comprise aminated sugar alcohols in protonated form as counterions. The invention also relates to methods for producing same and to their use.Atom or group transfer radical polymerization: Patented by Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Scott G. Gaynor and Simion Coca on August 6, 1999. Abstract: A process for ATRP polymerization and coupling of molecules by radical processes is provided, wherein improvements are provided by selection of various ligands, counterions, transition metal compounds and/or zero oxidation state transition metals to give improved control over molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and compositions of the products formed.Bisazo and Trisazo Copper Complex Dyestuffs: Patented by Dominique Pflieger on May 23, 2003. Abstract: This invention relates to coppered bis- or trisazo dyestuffs containing at least two (for bisazo) and at least three (for trisazo) alkyl-, alkoxy- or aryl- ammonium sulfonate groups or sulfonate groups with Rhodamine B type or Rosinamine D type counterions. The invention also relates to various intermediates used in the preparation of the metallized dyes, to compositions, and to processes for preparing the metallized dyestuffs. The compounds are particularly suited for the application in lacquers.Improvements in Atom or Group Transfer Radical Polymerization: Patented by Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Scott G. Gaynor and Simion Coca on March 11, 1998. Abstract: A process for ATRP polymerization and coupling of molecules by radical processes is provided, wherein improvements are provided by selection of various ligands, counterions, transition metal compounds and/or zero oxidation state transition metals to give improved control over molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and compositions of the products formed.Method for Producing Polyether Polyols: Patented by Ornulf Rexin and Rolf Muuml;lhaupt on April 24, 2002. Abstract: The invention relates to a method for producing polyether polyols by the polyaddition of alkylene oxides to starter compounds, which comprise active hydrogen atoms, under basic catalysis, whereby phosphonium ions are used as counterions on the active anionic chain end.Method for reducing turbidity in laundry waste water: Patented by Denis E. Hassick on March 1, 1996. Abstract: A method for reducing turbidity in laundry waste water comprising the steps of treating said water with effective amounts of a first polymer comprised of dimethyl dialkyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC) and dialkyl diallyl ammonium monomers (DADAAX) other than DMDAAC having alkyl groups with from 8 to 18 carbon atoms and counterions with an ionization constant greater than 10.sup.-8, and a second cationic, nonionic or anionic acrylamide polymer is disclosed.METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF ELECTROLYTES, AND METHOD FOR ION EXCHANGE OF ELECTROLYTES WITH COUNTER-IONS: Patented by Toshiya Tanabe, Shigemitsu Abe, Masazumi Date and Tetsuya Kawakita on July 1, 1988. Abstract: A method for separating electrolytes which have different charges of the same sign
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