Chemical Warfare: A Study in Restraints

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Transaction Publishers, Oct 1, 2005 - Poetry - 355 pages
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In the aftermath of 9/11, the potential terror of weapons of mass destruction--from nuclear, biological, and chemical to dirty bombs--preoccupies national security experts. In Chemical Warfare, Frederic J. Brown, presents a cogent, innovative framework for understanding the historical forces that have restrained the use of WMD and how they continue to have relevance today. Analyzing both world wars, he argues that the restraints on use were complex and often unpredictable and ranged from the political to the technological.

The author offers a detailed examination of American chemical warfare policy as it was shaped by industry and public sentiment, as well as national and military leaders. The organization of the book into three parts reflects the importance of battlefield experiences during the First World War and of international political restraints as they evolved during the interwar years and culminated in "no first use" policies by major powers in World War II. Part I examines the use of chemical weapons in World War I as it influenced subsequent national policy decisions. Part II focuses on the evolution of political, military, economic, and psychological restraints from 1919 to 1939. Part III discusses World War II during two critical periods: 1939 to early 1942, when the environment of the war was being established largely without American influence; and during 1945, when the United States faced no credible threat of retaliation to deter its strategic and battlefield use of chemical weapons. Written at the height of controversy about the U.S. use of chemicals in Vietnam, Chemical Warfare offers a valuable historical perspective, as relevant now in its analysis of chemical and also nuclear policy as it was when first published.

  

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Contents

CHAPTER 1 THE HERITAGE OF WAR
3
B FORMATION OF RESTRAINTS
12
THE ADMINISTRATION RESPONDS
17
C MILITARY PERSPECTIVES
33
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
38
A QUESTION OF HONOR
40
D FEARS FOR THE FUTUREESCALATION
42
PART II THE INTERWAR YEARS
49
CHAPTER 5 CONFIRMATION OF RESTRAINTS 19391942
191
B REEVALUATION AFTER PEARL HARBOR
198
C BRITISH CHEMICAL WARFARE POLICY
207
DECLARATION POLICY
208
RESTRAINTS ON EMPLOYMENT
211
PUBLIC ATTITUDES
212
THREAT EVALUATION
213
NATIONAL ELITE AND COALITION WAR
216

CHAPTER 2 THE AFTERMATH OF WAR
51
A DRAFTING THE PEACE
52
B AMERICAN INDUSTRY AND PROPAGANDA
56
C THE WASHINGTON ARMS CONFERENCE
61
D INSTITUTIONALIZATION WITHIN THE MILITARY
72
CONGRESSIONAL INTERVENTIONTHE NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT OF 1920
73
WAR DEPARTMENT HESITATION
87
LEGACY OF THE WASHINGTON ARMS CONFERENCE
93
CHAPTER 3 THE EVOLUTION OF POLICY 19221939
97
GENEVA GAS PROTOCOL
98
WORLD DISARMAMENT CONFERENCE
110
B INTERNAL REVIEW
121
NATIONAL POLICYCONTINUING OPPOSITION
123
MILITARY PROGRAMSCONTINUING UNREADINESS
125
CHAPTER 4 RESTRAINTS AT THE OUTBREAK OF WAR
149
ARMYNONASSIMILATION
150
NAVYINATTENTION
158
AIR CORPSFOCUS ON SURVIVAL
162
B THE PROBLEM OF CIVIL DEFENSE
167
C UNREALISTIC THREAT PERCEPTION
174
D PUBLIC OPPOSITION
176
E A TENUOUS LEGAL RESTRAINT
183
PART III THE TEST OF WORLD WAR II
189
MILITARY READINESS
218
THE TEST OF SEA LION
226
D GERMAN CHEMICAL WARFARE POLICY
230
RESTRAINTS ON EMPLOYMENT
231
ELITE ATTITUDESHITLERS RATIONALITY
235
MILITARY READINESS
238
E JAPANESE CHEMICAL WARFARE POLICY
246
DECLARATION POLICY
248
RESTRAINTS ON EMPLOYMENTTHREAT EVALUATION
249
MILITARY READINESS
253
CHAPTER 6 THE CRUCIAL TESTMID1945
262
B THE NEW ENVIRONMENT IN 1945
267
C RESTRAINTS ON EMPLOYMENT
269
JCS PROCRASTINATION
271
VULNERABILITY OF ALLIES
278
INSTITUTIONAL AND PERSONAL ATTITUDES
281
D INEFFECTIVE RESTRAINTS
286
PUBLIC OPINION
287
CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
290
GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS
317
BIBLIOGRAPHY
321
INDEX
343
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