Inventing the Criminal: A History of German Criminology, 1880-1945

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Univ of North Carolina Press, 2000 - Social Science - 348 pages
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Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of biological research into the causes of crime, but the origins of this kind of research date back to the late nineteenth century. Here, Richard Wetzell presents the first history of German criminology from Imperi
  

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
CHAPTER ONE THE ORIGINS OF MODERN CRIMINOLOGY
15
Medical Explanations of Crime
17
Moral Statistics
21
Studies of the Criminal CLASSES
25
Lombrosos Theory of the Born Criminal
28
The German Penal Reform Movement
31
FROM CRIMINAL ANTHROPOLOGY TO CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY 18801914
39
From Mindarwertige to Psychopathic Personalities
144
The Search for Genetic Factor
153
The First Twin Study
161
Criminal Psychology
168
Assessing the Different Trends In Weimar Criminal Biology
174
CHAPTER SIX CRIMINOLOGY UNDER THE NAZI REGIME
179
AntiSemitism
186
The Search for Genetic Factors Continued
190

Psychiatrists Prison Doctors and the Reception of Lombroso
40
Degeneration Theory and Lombrosos German Critivs
46
The Born Criminal Redefined
52
Combining Biological and Social Explanations of Crime
60
Conclusion
68
CHAPTER THREE CRIMINOLOGY AND PENAL POLICY 18801914
73
The Question of Diminished Legal Responsibility
79
The IKV Debate over the Treatment of Minderwertigo
83
The Juristentag Debate over the Treatment of Minderwertige
90
Proposals for the Surveillance and Preventive Internment of Minderwertige
96
Proposals for Sterilization
100
CHAPTER FOUR CRIMINAL SOCIOLOGY IN THE WEIMAR YEARS
107
A Giant Experiment
109
Franz Exners Criminal Sociology
116
Criminology and Criminal Justice In the Weimar Years
120
VARIETIES OF CRIMINAL BIOLOGY IN THE WEIMAR YEARS
125
The Creation of Bavarias CriminalBiological Service
128
Criticisms of the CriminalBiological Service
137
Psychoanalysis and Somatotyplng
142
The Search for Genetic Factors Criticized
202
Two Syntheses
209
Research on Asocials
219
Conclusion
230
CHAPTER SEVEN CRIMINOLOGY AND EUGENICS 19191945
233
Sterilization Debates among Weimar Psychiatrists 19231933
237
Weimar Bureaucrats and Politicians Respond 19231933
246
The Nazi Sterilization Law of July 1933
254
Expanding the Definition of Feeblemindedness
260
Feeblemindedness and Crime In the Sterilization Courts
265
The Treatment of Criminals under the Marriage Health Law
272
Debates about Expanding the Sterilization Law to Include Criminals
276
Radical Schemes and the Murder of Criminals in the Euthanasia Operation 19391945
280
Conclusion
289
CONCLUSION
295
BIBLIOGRAPHY
307
INDEX
345
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About the author (2000)

Richard F. Wetzell is a Research Fellow at the German Historical Institute in Washington, D.C.

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