Polarized Light in Animal Vision: Polarization Patterns in Nature
While the human eye can practically cope only with two aspects of light, brightness and colour, for many animals polarization is a further source of visual information. This fascinating phenomenon of polarization sensitivity is comprehensively treated by Horvath and Varju. Starting with a short introduction into imaging polarimetry - an efficient technique for measuring light polarization - various polarization patterns occurring in nature are presented. Among them are the polarizational characteristics of water surfaces, mirages and the underwater light field as well as the celestial polarization patterns affected by the illumination conditions of sunrise, sunset, clear or cloudy skies, moonshine and total solar eclipses. The major part of the book is dedicated to the question: How can animals perceive and use the natural and artificial polarization patterns? Following a detailed compendium of the physiological basis of polarization sensitivity, several case studies of animal behaviour determined or influenced by polarization are presented. It is shown how arial, terrestrial and aquatic animals use the celestial and underwater polarization for orientation, e. g. how polarized light serves honeybees or ants as a compass. Further, it is explained how man-made objects affecting the natural optical environment may disorientate animals. For instance, as in the case where oil or glass surfaces, asphalt roads, or plastic sheets used in agriculture can be more attractive for water-seeking polarotactic insects than the water surface, and where mayflies lay their eggs on dry asphalt roads or cars.
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Polarimetry From PointSource to Imaging Polarimeters
12 Elements of the Stokes and Mueller Formalism of Polarization
13 Polarimetry of Circularly Unpolarized Light by Means of Intensity Detectors
14 PointSource Scanning and Imaging Polarimetry
16 Colour Coding and Visualization of Polarization Patterns
18 Polarizational Cameras
Polarization Patterns in Nature
SpaceBorne Measurement of Earthlight Polarization
Oil Reservoirs and Plastic Sheets as Polarizing Insect Traps
212 The Waste Oil Reservoir in Budapest as a Disastrous Insect Trap for Half a Century
2121 Surface Characteristics of Waste Oil Reservoirs
2122 Insects Trapped by the Waste Oil
2123 Behaviour of Dragonflies Above Oil Surfaces
213 DualChoice Field Experiments Using Huge Plastic Sheets
214 The Possible LargeScale Hazard of Shiny Black Anthropogenic Products for Aquatic Insects
Why Do Mayflies Lay Eggs on Dry Asphalt Roads? WaterImitating Horizontally Polarized Light Reflected from Asphalt Attracts Ephemeroptera
32 Celestial Polarization Measured by Video Polarimetry in the Tunisian Desert in the UV and Green Spectral Ranges
Principal Neutral Points of Atmospheric Polarization
41 Video Polarimetry of the Arago Neutral Point of Skylight Polarization
42 First Observation of the Fourth Principal Neutral Point
24Hour Change of the Polarization Pattern of the Summer Sky North of the Arctic Circle
Polarization Patterns of Cloudy Skies and Animal Orientation
62 Continuation of the ClearSky Angle of Polarization Pattern Underneath Clouds
63 Proportion of the Celestial Polarization Pattern Useful for Compass Orientation Exemplified with Crickets
GroundBased FullSky Imaging Polarimetric Cloud Detection
Polarization Pattern of the Moonlit Clear Night Sky at Full Moon Comparison of Moonlit and Sunlit Skies
Imaging Polarimetry of the Rainbow
Which Part of the Spectrum Is Optimal for Perception of Skylight Polarization?
102 Why Do Many Insects Perceive Skylight Polarization in the UV?
1022 Was the UV Component of Skylight Stronger in the Past?
1023 Relatively Large Proportion of UV Radiation in Skylight?
1024 Mistaking Skylight for GroundReflected Light?
1026 Were UV Receptors Originally Skylight Detectors and only later Incorporated into the Evector Detecting System?
1028 In the Spectral and Intensity Domain the Celestial Band of Maximum Polarization Is less Pronounced in the UV than in the Blue
10210 Perception of Skylight in the UV Maximizes the Extent of the Celestial Polarization Pattern Useful for Compass Orientation under Cloudy Skies
103 Resolution of the UVSkyPol Paradox
104 EVector Detection in the UV also Maximizes the Proportion of the Celestial Polarization Pattern Useful for Orientation under Canopies
105 Analogy Between Perception of Skylight Polarization and Polarotactic Water Detection Considering the Optimal Spectral Range
107 Why Do Crickets Perceive Skylight Polarization in the Blue?
108 Concluding Remark
Polarization of the Sky and the Solar Corona During Total Solar Eclipses
111 Structure of the Celestial Polarization Pattern and its Temporal Change During the Eclipse of 11 August 1999
112 Origin of the Evector Pattern During Totality
113 Neutral Points of Skylight Polarization Observed During Totality
114 Origin of the Zenith Neutral Point During Totality
116 Imaging Polarimetry of the Solar Corona
ReflectionPolarization Pattern of the Flat Water Surface Measured by 180 FieldofView Imaging Polarimetry
Polarization Pattern of a Fata Morgana Why Aquatic Insects Are not Attracted by Mirages?
Polarizational Characteristics of the Underwater World
Circulary Polarized Light in Nature
152 Circulary Polarized Light Reflected from the Exoskeleton of Certain Arthropods
153 Circulary Polarized Light Emitted by Firefly Larvae
Polarized Light in Animal Vision
From Polarization Sensitivity to Polarization Vision
162 Polarization Sensitivity Polarization Vision and Analysis of Polarization Patterns
163 Functional Similarities Between Polarization Vision and Colour Vision
164 How Can Skylight Polarization Be Used for Orientation?
165 Possible Functions of Polarization Sensitivity
166 How Might Polarization Sensitivity Have Evolved?
167 Polarization Sensitivity of Rhabdomeric Invertebrate Photoreceptors
1671 Hypothetical Polarizing Ability of the Dioptric Apparatus
1673 Origin of High Polarization Sensitivity
1674 Origin of Low Polarization Sensitivity
1675 Rhabdomeric Twist and Misalignment and Their Functional Significance
1676 Ontogenetic Development of Photoreceptor Twist Outside the Dorsal Rim Area of the Insect Eye
1677 Characteristics of the Anatomically and Physiologically Specialized PolarizationSensitive Dorsal Rim Area in Insect Eyes
1678 PolarizationSensitive Interneurons in Invertebrates
169 Polarization Sensitivity in Plants
Polarization Sensitivity in Terrestrial Insects
1723 Musca domestica Calliphora erythrocephala Calliphora stygia and Phoenicia sericata
1724 Drosophila melanogaster
1743 Gryllus bimaculatus
1744 Gryllus campestris
Butterflies and Moths
1751 Papilio xuthus
1753 Polarized Light Reflected from Butterfly Wings as a Possible Mating Signal in Heliconius cydno chioneus
178 Scarab Beetles
179 Response of NightFlying Insects to Linearly Polarized Light
Polarization Sensitivity in Insects Associated with Water
181 Velia caprai
184 Waterstrider Gerris lacustris
185 Backswimmer Notonecta glauca
186 Dragonflies Odonata
188 Mayflies Ephemeroptera
1810 Insects Living on Moist Substrata or Dung
MultipleChoice Experiments on Dragonfly Polarotaxis
How Can Dragonflies Discern Bright and Dark Waters from a Distance? The Degree of Linear Polarization of Reflected Light as a Possible Cue for D...
221 Swarming Behaviour of Mayflies Above Asphalt Roads
222 MultipleChoice Experiments with Swarming Mayflies
223 ReflectionPolarizational Characteristics of the Swarming Sites of Mayflies
224 Mayflies Detect Water by Polarotaxis
225 Comparison of the Attractiveness of Asphalt Roads and Water Surfaces to Mayflies
ReflectionPolarizational Characteristics of CarBodies Why Are WaterSeeking Insects Attracted to the Bodywork of Cars?
Polarization Sensitivity in Spiders and Scorpions
Polarization Sensitivity in Crustaceans
251 Mangrove Crab Goniopsis cruentata
253 Copepod Cyclops vernalis
254 Larvae of the Crab Rhithropanopeus harrisi
255 Larvae of the Mud Crab Panopeus herbstii
256 Grapsid Crab Leptograpsus variegatus
258 Grass Shrimp Palaemonetes vulgaris
259 Crab Dotilla wichmanni
2510 Water Flea Daphnia
2511 Mantis Shrimps
Polarization Sensitivity in Cephalopods and Marine Snails
2613 European Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis
262 Marine Snails
PolarizationSensitive Optomotor Reaction in Invertebrates
274 Rose Chafers
276 Optomotor Response to Over and Underwater Brightness and Polarization Patterns in the Backswimmer Notonecta glauca
Polarization Sensitivity in Fish
281 Fish in Which PolarizationSensitivity Was Proposed
2812 Tropical Halfbeaks Zenarchopterus dispar and Zenarchopterus buffoni
2813 Halfbeak Fish Dermogenys pusilus
2814 Goldfish Carassius auratus
2815 African Cichlid Pseudotropheus macrophthalmus
2816 Anchovies Engraulis mordax and Anchoa mitchilli
2817 Rainbow Trout Oncorhyncus mykiss
2818 Juvenile Salmonid Fish Oncorhynchus tnykiss Oncorhynchus clarki clarki Oncorhynchus nerka and Salvelinus fontinalis
282 Fish with Debated Polarization Sensitivity and Fish in Which Polarization Insensitivity Was Proposed
2822 Common White Sucker Catostomus commersoni
283 Possible Biophysical Basis of Fish Polarization Sensitivity
2832 Embryonic Fissures in Fish Eyes and Their Possible Role in the Detection of Polarization
2833 Paired Cones as a Possible Basis for Polarization Sensitivity in Fish
28332 Proposed Basis for Polarization Sensitivity in Rainbow Trout due to Internal Reflection from the Membranous Partitions of Double Cones
Polarization Sensitivity in Amphibians
291 Tiger Salamander Ambystoma tigrinum
292 RedSpotted Newt Notophthalmus viridescens
293 Larval Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana
294 Proposed Mechanisms of Detection of Polarization in Amphibians
Polarization Sensitivity in Reptiles
302 Desert Lizard Uma notata
303 Sleepy Lizard Tiliqua rugosa
Polarization Sensitivity in Birds
311 Crepuscularly and Nocturnally Migrating Birds
3112 Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis and Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus
3113 YellowRumped Warbler Dendroica coronata
3114 Blackcap Sylvia atrkapilla
3115 Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis
312 DayMigrating Birds
313 Birds Which Might Be Polarization Insensitive or not Use Skylight Polarization in Their Migratory Orientation
3131 Debated Polarization Sensitivity in the Homing Pigeon Columba livia
31311 The Position of the Sun Hidden by Clouds Could also be Determined on the Basis of the Colour Gradients of Skylight Under Partly Cloudy C...
3132 European Robin Erithacus rubecula
3133 Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
314 Proposed Mechanisms of Avian Polarization Sensitivity
3142 A Model of Polarization Detection in the Avian Retina with Oil Droplets
Human Polarization Sensitivity
322 Boehm Brushes
PolarizationInduced False Colours
332 Polarizational False Colours Perceived by Papilio Butterflies
3322 PolarizationInduced False Colours Perceived by a Weakly PolarizationSensitive Retina
3323 ReflectionPolarizational Characteristics of Plant Surfaces
3324 Do PolarizationInduced False Colours Influence the Weakly PolarizationSensitive Colour Vision of Papilio Butterflies Under Natural Conditions?
333 Polarizational False Colours Perceived by a Highly PolarizationSensitive Retina Rotating in Front of Flowers and Leaves
334 Camouflage Breaking via PolarizationInduced False Colours and Reflection Polarization
335 Is Colour Perception or Polarization Sensitivity the more Ancient?
A Common Methodological Error Intensity Patterns Induced by Selective Reflection of Linearly Polarized Light from Black Surfaces
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Polarized Light in Animal Vision
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