Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language

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Maksim Stamenov, Vittorio Gallese
John Benjamins Publishing, Jan 1, 2002 - Psychology - 390 pages
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The emergence of language, social intelligence, and tool development are what made homo sapiens sapiens differentiate itself from all other biological species in the world. The use of language and the management of social and instrumental skills imply an awareness of intention and the consideration that one faces another individual with an attitude analogical to that of one's own. The metaphor of 'mirror' aptly comes to mind.Recent investigations have shown that the human ability to 'mirror' other's actions originates in the brain at a much deeper level than phenomenal awareness. A new class of neurons has been discovered in the premotor area of the monkey brain: 'mirror neurons'. Quite remarkably, they are tuned to fire to the enaction as well as observation of specific classes of behavior: fine manual actions and actions performed by mouth. They become activated independent of the agent, be it the self or a third person whose action is observed. The activation in mirror neurons is automatic and binds the observation and enaction of some behavior by the self or by the observed other. The peculiar first-to-third-person 'intersubjectivity' of the performance of mirror neurons and their surprising complementarity to the functioning of strategic communicative face-to-face (first-to-second person) interaction may shed new light on the functional architecture of conscious vs. unconscious mental processes and the relationship between behavioral and communicative action in monkeys, primates, and humans.
The present volume discusses the nature of mirror neurons as presented by the research team of Prof. Giacomo Rizzolatti (University of Parma), who originally discovered them, and the implications to our understanding of the evolution of brain, mind and communicative interaction in non-human primates and man.(Series B)
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
The mirror system in humans
37
Further developments in the study of mirror neurons system
61
The coevolution of language and working memory capacity
77
The role of objects in imitation
101
The mirror system and joint action
115
Mirror neurons and the self construct
135
Behavioral synchronization in human conversational interaction
151
Mirror neurons
229
Some features that make mirror neurons and human language
249
Egos
273
Visual attention and selfgrooming behaviors among
295
The role of mirror neurons in the ontogeny of speech
305
A resource
315
Looking for neural answers to linguistic questions
323
A connectionist model which unifies the behavioral
363

Symmetry building and symmetry breaking in synchronized movement
163
On the evolutionary origin of language
175
Mirror neurons vocal imitation and the evolution of particulate speech
207
Name index
377
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