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wise, instead of palliating, they intensify the original blunder. The chief of these reasons is mat the decorations should not be allowed to interfere with the effect of the goods displayed, and this was evidently highly esteemed by those who listened and applauded. But a constructive treatment does not necessarily interfere with anything, although it would, if adopted throughout, have compelled a very different arrangement of colour in the roof. But neither would that have been a necessary evil, if it would not have been a positive advantage, because the colour in ratio is at present as defective as the whole is deficient in unity. It is like a pyramid set on its apex, instead of on its base, a neutral tertiary being made to support the bold and heavy primary colours on the roof—a principle we believe to be utterly unsound in itself, and ignored in all the most important styles of decoration. In the octagon room at the Louvre, for example, where some of the best pictures are hung, the object is, of course, not to allow the decorations to interfere with the works exhibited, and that object has been attained; so that whatever may be thought of the hey on which the decorations there are cast, it would be difficult successfully to dispute the truth of the principle adopted, of mailing the colour rise from a solid base, and, by decreasing strength, carrying the eye to the ceiling—a principle which gives at once stability and size. Mr. Crace has, as nearly as possible, reversed that principle, by placing intense reds, blues, and blacks above, and a lighter neutral green at the base below, and if the principle at the Louvre be successful in not interfering with the works of Titian and Raffaelle, the reason for this violation of principle in decoration at Kensington will hardly be accepted as satisfactory when
§leaded for the display of industrial prouctions.
There is another point upon which these decorations are open to comment, and that is, the introduction of gold. Every one acquainted with the subject—and no one better tnan Mr. Crace—knows that the introduction of gold into such decorations is itself a confession of weakness. Any one could get up a pleasing effect with vermilion, ultramarine, and plenty of gold; and this is what Mr. Crace has accomplished on the roof of the Exhibition building; but it is the keeping to colour alone that tests the decorator's power, and had this been carried out, although it would not have been so attractive to the crowd, it would have evinced a higher display of decorative resources, and have more fully avoided that which was aimed at in the lower portion of the building—non-interference with the objects exhibited. There are some other matters which might have been touched, such as the slovenly way in which the badly-drawn yellow lines disfigure the green pillars, and the spoiling the ship for a ha'porth of tar principle, so evident in these pillars, where the lines are only drawn on the front; but these are only indications of careless attention to details, and not touching any principle; they are not worth dwelling upon. That Mr. Crace deserves credit for the rapidity with which the work has been accomplished there can be no doubt, but that the principles on which the work has been accomplished will add to his already high reputation as a decorator is by no means probable, and his friends should not attempt to extract what these decorations will never yield.
Mr. Crace said that to any who objected, respecting the colours used, he would ask what they would have substituted. The answer once given by Sir Robert Peel to his political rivals was that he declined to prescribe till he was called in.
On the day of our publication (1st of May), the inauguration of the International Exhibition of 1862 will take place. Writing under the disadvantage of the early date at which our large circulation compels us to go to press, our comments are necessarily restricted to the advancement presented somo days since, and that which may be reasonably inferred from subsequent progress. Judging from these premises, and making due allowance for the results which unflagging exertion may realise, we can but feel that, although tho Exhibition may and will present many important and interesting features, still it will be very far from complete, and heralded with les9 evidence of cordial sympathy on the part of the public than was anticipated. There has been much to cause doubt and estrangement on the part of those who might have been found zealous workers in its aid. Distrustful of the policy of many of the official decisions, we raised a warning voice as to their prospective influence, and this at a time when they were generally received without question or consideration. Desire for the success of the undertaking forced us to make this protest, when warning, if wisely heeded, might have been of good service: and we stood alone. In many respects our fears have been realised; there is now one loud and general complaint against tho gross errors of its management; but it comes too late.
We have previously referred to the impolicy of repudiating the assistance of those whose reputations gave them office in 1851, and who materially added to their previous experience and administrative capacity by connection with that scheme, the success of which was very mainly attributable to their co-operation.* The result of this folly and injustice, lamentably evident as it has been through all the preliminary stages of the present plan, is now so palpable in its advanced stage, as to have aroused general animadversion. There seemB to exist no presiding head, with competent judgment to guide, and energy to urge on the operations of others. If anything coulcf reconcile us to the offences of omission and commission which this unfortunate building presents, it is the extraordinary licence which seems to be allowed as to the manner of its occupancy.
Objection has been made to the proceedings of the foreign exhibitors, in enclosing their portion of the exhibition space within high partitions, thus isolating it from the aggregate area. But this took place when such subdivision as regards the general effect of the building was of no moment whatever; and as it materially aided the effective disposition of the exhibits, it was a judicious act. Here, when official judgment should have admitted the advantages resulting from what might have been an infringement of its previous regulations (if any such had been determined), it only saw cause of remonstrance. Objections against the proceeding were repeatedly urged, and it was only by the firmness of the Commission, acting on the part of the foreign exhibitors, that the partitions were allowed to remain.
But the manner in which the nave is being filled by a mass of incongruous, and in many respectB unsightlv, objects, is a matter that might reasonably have been expected to arouse instant remonstrance and prohibition.
The only portion of the building that could by any possibility have given a notion of its vast extent, and, through that quality, have made some claim to grandeur, was the nave. This, seen through its extent from one dome to the other, was, from its size, chiefly, if not altogether, the only redeeming feature of the gigantic blunder. This space has been allowed to be filled up with objects so dissimilar in character and proportion, deposited here and there apparently at the caprice of the exhibitor, that a scene of confusion and bewilderment presents itself which has been without a parallel in exhibitive annals.
* We believe there is no member of the staff of the Department of Science and Art at South Kensington who is not, in some way or other, profitably (for himself) employed at the International Exhibition. Of course their duties, meanwhile, at the department are suspended; but the public is a liberal and " soft" paymaster.
It seems as though, disgusted with the building to which their works are doomed, the exhibitors have combined to hide it as effectually as possible. Let those who saw the effect of the nave of the Exhibition of 1851 recall it to memory, or compare this with that of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham. Fortunate is it for our credit with foreigners that the latter building is accessible. Let them witness here what England has done, and could have done again, and then marvel at the perverseness which could exchange the success of 1851 for the mortifying failure of 1862.
We have to express disappointment at the general effect of the arrangements in the exhibitive space, which seems to have been awarded without such restriction as would have secured some uniformity of action amongst the exhibitors, and by which all would have benefited. Each appears to have been influenced by his own judgment or caprice, and the result is sadly unsatisfactory. Cases of all sizes, heights, forms, and colours, are jostled together in most disorderly confusion. Without attempting any arbitrary enactments, we think that some general recommendation as to uniformity in the fittings of the various classes might have been urged which would have been generally accepted by the exhibitors; and we fear the want of such direction will eventually be a source of much regret to them.
Singularly enough, after the statements which had been so industriously and prominently circulated as to the dilatoriness of the British exhibitors, and the great disadvantage they would suffer by comparison with the more advanced progress of their continental rivals, it is now evident that the completion of the Exhibition by the opening day is doubtful, from the backward Btate of the foreign exhibitors. We were quite prepared for this position. We did not share the fears as to the alleged indifference of our countrymen. We knew in many cases the delay was not tbeir fault, but their misfortune, as changes had been made in their allotments which put them to much inconvenience.
We also had some experience of the tactics of our gallant neighbours, as illustrated in previous exhibitions of their own, and this did not lead U9 to infer that they would feel under any urgent necessity to have their arrangements completed by the opening day. We were not mistaken. The question with them appears to be not so much as to when the Exhibition opens as when it will close; and the interim is held available for the perfect adjustment of their final preparations.
Up to the present time no provision has been made for the issue of season tickets for children, or for their daily admission at reduced prices. We have already urged attention to this requirement. The want of such a regulation is a serious hindrance to the sale of the season tickets. The price of these is already too high for adults, but the attempt to secure the same sum for the entrance of children will deter many from the purchase of either. This will in a measure account for the moderate number already disposed of.
In illustration of the estimation in which the building is held, we may mention that the advertisements which have for months appeared on behalf of the Royal Commissioners, for tenders for the privilege of photographing it, have been fruitless. No offer has been made. Its unpicturesque and unsightly appearance is fatal to any hopes of remuneration through that art.*
At all events this day—the 1st of May, 1862— will be memorable in the Art-history of England; for, with all its short-comings—they are many and grievous—the International Exhibition will be a great event.
* We copy the following passage from the Times:—"In the form of tender issued there is no date put as to the time before which the offer is to be sent in, and, above all, the photographers most justly complain that they are required, when Btating the sum v. bich they are willing to pay for the right, to state also how many copies of every photograph 1 which may be taken in the building they are willing to place at the disposal of the Commissioners for distribution, but not for sale.1 If, in the tenders for refreshments, tho contractor was called upon to specify how many free dinner tickets each day would be placed at the disposal of the Commissioners for distribution, but not for sale, the public, we think, would express their opinion very freely upon the nature of such an agreement, and we confess we are at a loss to see the difference in principle between such an arrangement and that which the Commissioners expect to make with the photographers."
THE FRENCH EXHIBITION.
This exhibition ie again open for the ninth season, with a catalogue of pictures to which attach names now as familiar to us as arc those of our own artists—Rosa Bonheur, Juliette Bonheur, Mcissonnier, Frere (Charles and Edouard), Ruiperez, Gerome, Lambinet, Troyon, Ten Kate, &c. Edouard Frere has hitherto been a painter of but a few figures in each picture, but now he, for the first time, exhibits 65)' Juvenile Field Day,' and (66)'Good Friday at Notre Dame, Paris,' two compositions, each with numerous figures. He has besides these four others, not so much removed from his once known line of subject. Meissonnier too has painted a 'Corps de Garde' (119), containing a numerous company of soldiers of the middle of the seventeenth century, all interested in a game of cards; but his 'Flute Player' (121), is the best of the three he sends this year. In these single figures he stands alone, and the ' Flute Player' is equal to his very best productions. A grand feature in Meissonnier's pictures is that nothing looks new in them. The player is an earnest, middle-aged man, and everything about him looks old and veritably household. Besides the two we mention he exhibits 'Punch' (120), very brilliant in colour. The single picture by Rose Bonheur is a 1 Meadow Scene' (13), in which a red bull figures as the master of the situation , by other members of this accomplished family there are (11) ' Dog and Puppies,' and (12) 'Cat and Kittens,' Madame Juliette Peynol (nit Bonheur); and by Henrietta Browne (the nom depinceau of another distinguished lady artist), there is (19) 'The Interior of the Harem,' widely differing from the 'Sosurs de Charite' slic has recently painted. M. Gerome's picture is called 'Aspasia's House at Athens;' a small picture, but throughout so charmingly classical that it is a picture to think about. Jhe figures appear to represent Pericles subdued and enslaved by the charms of Aspasia, and urged apparently by Socrates to rouse himself and break the enchantment: the picture BhowB a great amount of research and study. 'Michael Angelo in his Studio' (21), is the subject of a work by Cabanel, who paints the great artist amid his grandest works; and 'Bernard Palissv's Final Experiments,' is that of a picture (186) by J. H. Vetter. Of the small and highly finished works of Ruiperez we have on former occasions spoken favourably, but in the two pictures he now exhibits—' Soldiers at Leisure' (141), and 'The Music Lesson' (14:2)—he excels all he has beforo done. He is a Spaniard, a pupil of Meissonier, sent to study in Paris by the Spanish government. Troyon's cattle compositions are small, and more agreeable than those ho sent last year. There are also two cattle pictures by Verboeckhoven, (182) 'Scotch Sheep,' and (183) 'Landscape with Sheep.' Achenbsch has sent one picture, which, although small, has been maturely studied—it is (1) ' A Sea Piece;' and Chavet (30) 'The Toilet,' and (31) "The Morning News.' 'The Roman Mother'(76), by Gallait, is a life-sized study of a woman of the Roman Canipagna, holding her sleeping infant; substantial and life-like, without any of the prettiness that many artists think indispensable to Contadine. M. Isabey exhibits (82) 'Ascending the Pass,' and (83) 'Port of St. Malo;' and by Leys there are, (114) ' Paul Potter in his Studio",' and (115) ' Synagogue at Prague.' Plassan, who is worthy to rank with the most distinguished of the contributors to this exhibition, must not be forgotten; his pictures are three, 'The Bath' (134), 'The Chocolate' (135), and 'Tho New Novel' (136). Nor can Trover be omitted among the notables. By Dansnerd, 'The Cafe Procope,' containing numerous figures, is very accurate in the costume of the middle of the eighteenth century; and by Decamps, 'Truffle Hunting' (38); and by Edouard Dubufe. 'Vandyke and Lady' (47), and ' Portrait of a Lady'(48).
We regret much that want of space forbids a longer notice of this, the best collection of French pictures that has yet been seen on these walls. It has always been a most attractive fenture of the London season. This year, however, Mr. GamHart has evidently foreseen the harvest he is to reap.
FREDERICK WILLIAM SCHADOW.
The Prussian papers announce the death, in Berlin, of this distinguished painter, a member of the academy of that city, formerly director of the Dusseldorf Academy, and corresponding member of the Institute of France. Son of the famous sculptor Godefroid Schadow, and educated in the studio of Cornelius, the deceased was among those \ whose influence was exercised in directing the artistic reaction which agitated Germany in the earlier part of the present century. The ranks of his disciples include Hiibner, Sohn, Hildebrandt, Lessing, Rethel, Miicke, Meyer, and Steinbruck.
The pictures of Schadow evidence more taste than genius; more of idea than of the power to express it. In facility of design, in purity of style, in the choice and execution of details, there is little left to be desired; but they are deficient in grandeur of conception, and in a living reality. Among the most remarkable of his pictures we may point out,—' Christ eating with his Disciples at Enimaus,' ' Christ on the Mount of Olives,' 'The Deposition from the Cross,' ' Holy Family,' 'Charity,' ' The Adoration of the Shepherds,' &c.
Schadow ■ in 1789.
i a native of Berlin. He was born
MR. JOHN GODDEN. Mr. Goddcn, whose death took place on the 20th of March, was well known, especially among engravers, for his skilful exercise during many years of the art of etching. Though his name has not been before the public, his assistance on the backgrounds and other parts of many of the line and mixed style engravings, produced during the last forty years, has been, if subordinate, of t a very useful and valuable nature, as many of the plates published in our Journal testify. He was born in London in 1801, and in 1817 was placed as pupil with Mr. W. R. Smith, the landscape engraver, under whom he acquired that freedom in tho exercise of his art which characterised him. He died after a brief illness at his residence in the Hampstead Road; his remains are deposited in the cemetery at Highgato.
MR. JOHN THOMAS.
We have heard with exceeding regret of the almost sudden death of this sculptor on the Pth of last month, at his house at Kensington. The event was hastened, or caused, as we havo been informed, by some disappointment arisingout of the International Exhibition. To Mr. Thomas was entrusted the task of executing the principal decorative sculpture of the Houses of Parliament. We hope, however, to say more about him and his works next month.
HENRY SCHEFFER. Three men of talent bore the noted name of Schcffer; Ary, Arnold, and Henry. Arnold, one of the founders of tho National newspaper, died first , Ary died in June, 1858, and Henry on the 15th of March, 1802. The last was born at the Hague, on the 27th of September, 1798. The union of Holland with France induced him to settle in Paris, about the year 1814, where ho entered the studio of Guerin, as did also, for some time, his brother Ary. In 1824, H. Scheffer made his first appearance at the Salon, the subjects treated were 'Christ on tho knees of the Virgin;' 'The Day after the Burial;' 'Young Girl tending her Sick Mother;' 'Parents lamenting the Death of their Child.' In 1831 he exhibited 'Charlotte Corday seized at Marat's House,' now in tho Luxembourg; this is considered his best picture; indeed, he never since produced any work approaching the excellence of this. His subjects in general were interesting, and most frequently represented incidents connected with Protestant history, reflecting, as it were, his own personal character; they I were quiet and unassuming, but, latterly, feeble in execution. His portraits, many of which arc of distinguished personages, are good.
MINOR TOPICS OF TnE MONTH.
The Albert Memorial.—We earnestly hope her Majesty will not be induced to believe that the contemplated testimonial to commemorate the many useful virtues of the good Prince Albert "lags" from any apathy on the part of her subjects. There is hardly a man or woman of any rank in the realm who is indifferent to the issue; but the plain truth is this—there prevails a general conviction that £50,000 is amply sufficient to raise a monolith, with abundant sculptures, in Hyde Park; and that a larger amount would have the effect of procuring for the country only a larger stone. We apprehend, therefore, that so long as the monument is to be what it is expected to be, a much greater sum than that already obtained will not be gathered by subscriptions, and that the undignified suggestions for increasing it by canvassing the people will end only in humiliating disappointment. The Queen requires no evidence of the devoted attachment of her subjects; she has obtained ample proof that the memory of the Prince is hallowed throughout the length and breadth of the land; there has been fervent and universal mourning for his loss—not alone for what he has done, but for what he might have done, and would have done, liad it pleased God to extend his life into age, or even into mid-manhood. But, we repeat, there is a general belief that for such a monument as the one proposed £50,000 is amply sufficient. When certain discussions took place in reference to the memorial of the Great Exhibition, the committee were "unduly" given to understand that the Prince preferred a monolith, or obelisk; and no doubt, if such desire of his Royal Highness had been made known to the committee before, and not after the group of Mr. Durham had been selected, a monolith or obelisk would have been erected, in which case there would have been no competition: Mr. John Bell, would have had the work to do, and the project of the magnates at South Kensington woidd have been carried out. The prize award having been made, and Mr. Durham having, as a matter of right, obtained the commission, it was found impossible to meet the wish of the Prince, and Mr. Bell did not obtain the expected " order." His plans and estimates were, however, prepared: the cost of a stone from Cornwall had been ascertained, and the committee was proffered an obelisk, with its etceteras of bronze or marble, for a sum the minimum of which was £8,000, the maximum £24,000. We have, however, reason to believe that before his deeply lamented and most untimely death, the views of the Prince had undergone a material cliange; he had learned to appreciate the genius of the sculptor Durham; his sound judgment, as well as his righteous equity, had led him to reject the opinions of persons adverse to Mr. Durham—he had seen and judged for hitmeff. Mr. Durham had gained the confidence of the Prince, and sure we are that, if his Royal Highness had lived, he would have preferred the group of Mr. Durham to the obelisk of Mr. Bell, and have been gratified that the projects of South Kensington had been defeated. It is well known that the design thus ignored is that which the Society of Arts—acting under the guidance of South Kensington—intends to adopt, in the event of the obelisk or monolith being ultimately chosen—with this difference, however, that in lieu of £24,000, a sum of £240,000 will be nearer the sum to be expended—South Kensington having the privilege to spend the money, and the public to supply it. We repeat our conviction that the Prince, if he was now advising as to the best means of spending the sum it is expected—or hoped—to raise, would not counsel a monolith or obelisk as the work most beneficial to Art, and most honourable to the country.
The Art-journal Illustrated Catalogite.— We trust the second part will be found to keep pace with the interest created by the first part, and that ultimately it will form a volume full of suggestions to every class and order of manufacturers. We have now more applications for admissions into this work than we can by any possibility meet. Art-manufacturers and producers are satisfied that we shall do oi r utmost to render our engravings of merit commensurate with that of the objects selected; forty of each page will be printed, and the publication will, no doubt, find its way into overy quarter of the globe, where its lessons cannot fail to be productive of excellence.
The Hangers at the Eoyal Academy this year are Messrs. Pickersgill, sen., Poole, and Hook.
The Royal Academy.—Lord Elcho has given notice that on tho House of Commons going into committee of 6upply, he shall move—" That an humble address be presented to her Majesty, praying her Majesty to be graciously pleased to issue a Royal Commission to inquire into the present position of the Royal Academy in relation to the Pine Arts, and into the circumstances and conditions under which it occupies a portion of the National Gallery, and to Biiggest such measures as may be required to render it more useful in promoting Art, and in improving and developing public taste."
The International "three Guineas."—So loud and universal has been the voice of indignation against the "Royal" Commissioners in reference to demanding payment from invited guests—with or without official robes—that we imagine the tax will not be levied; the attempt, and not the deed, may have been in the power of the Commissioners. Thus writes on this topic the editor of tho Telegraph, who has dealt with tho Exhibition from the beginning in a friendly and encouraging spirit, yet with a stern resolve to guide the Commissioners when they have gone wrong, and to represent the sound and upright sense of tho English people:—
"If the International Exhibition Commissioners ever really contemplated doing tiii* meanest and shabbiest of things, we trust shortly to bo informed that they have abandoned their inhospitable plot; but if uiey jieridst in it, it will become our painful duty to inform them that they are conducting a great national enterprise in the spirit of hucksters and chandler-shop keepers."
It is necessary we should remind our readers that the Roval Commissioners arc—1st, the Duke of Buckingham; 2nd, the Earl Granville; 3rd, the Right Hon. Thomas Baring; 4th, Sir Charles Wontworth Dilke, Bart.; 5th, Thomas Fairbairn, Esq., of Manchester. There is no one of the five who represents the Arts, the Arts-industrial, or Science. Wo may justly ask, are we to blame the whole five, or two, or one of them, for degrading this country in its own estimation, and in the eyes of foreigners, by an extent of shabbiness in all arrangements such as would be discreditable to a huckster who desired to stand well with his neighbours in some lane or alley of the metropolis? Is this mean spirit only an importation from Manchester, or is the reproach to be shared by three members of the aristocracy, and by one who has just been admitted into its ranks? Certuinly it is said that in the great capital of cotton, honour and dignity are as feathers in the scale against the circulating medium there called "tin:" it may have been so once, it is not so now. Whatever be the olement —no matter where it comes from—that degrades the International Exhibition into a mere speculation to give the least possible amount of value for the largest gain and good—"buying in the cheapest and selling in tho dearest market"—it is deeply to be deplored, as depriving a great national work of its grandest attribute of glory. If wo contrast this miserable effort at extortion with the liborality and courtesy extondod to us at Paris, in 1855, we cannot but blush for our country, and once more quote the liackneyed passage,—they do indeed
"Manage uiese things better in France." The South Kensington Museum And Tue British Museum.—Tho main purpose of forming a museum at South Kensington was to supply a means of teaching the British manufacturer and artisan; to collect together Art-models that might increase his knowledge and improve his taste. This object has been in a degree answored; if he is willing to instruct himself, he cannot fail to do so hero. But it is certain that many of the works gathered togother, at large cost, are utterly useless for any practical purpose; however rare, curious, and interesting, they teach nothing. In the British Museum they would be more in place; while in that storehouse of treasures thero is much from which the modern producer may learn valuable lessons, from objects
which are there comparatively lost. Let tho two museums make an exchange; let South Kensington send away all works that in no way aid the manufacturer and artisan, and the British Museum give to South Kensington all such productions as supply models or afford suggestions to both.
The Art-copyright Bill has not yet passed the House of Lords: no doubt it will be thero subjected to some essential improvements. We thorefore postpone our remarks until it has bocome the law of the land.
The National Portrait Gallery was the subject of much discussion during tho recent debato in the House of Commons on our public Artgalleries. By a return, recently issued, to an order of the house, we find that, when the gallery was first opened in 1850, and admission was obtained only by tickets, the number of visitors was 6,305. In the year following no cards were required, and 0,392 persons were admitted: last year the number rose to 10,907. It seems clear, from the comparatively small attendance, that the gallery attracts but little public attention; this, however, may probably arise from the outof-the-way locality where the pictures hang: and it must not, moreover, be forgotten that the rooms arc open only two days in the week.
Public Monuments.—Mr. Cowper, Chief Commissioner of Works, said, a short time since in the House of Commons, in answer to a question put by Admiral Wallcott, that Sir Edwin Landseer—to whom was given, in 1858, the commission for the execution of the lions for the Nelson monument—was " now very accurately studying," we quote the report of the Times, " the habits of lions, and was to be seen in the Zoological Gardens making himself thoroughly acquainted with their attitudes." We had, in our innocence, always thought the work had been entrusted to Sir Edwin, because he was so profoundly versed in lionolngy; but it appears that after Btudying, as may be presumed, the science for four years, he yet does not feel himself in a position to undertake the task. Mr. Cowper stated on another evening, in reply to Lord Lovaine, respecting the Wellington monument for St. Paul's Cathedral, that the "artist to whom tho commission had been given to prepare tho model, liad received his instructions on the subject in November, 1858. Three years and a half had, therefore, elapsed since the order had been given. Tho model, however, was not yet completed. Ho was sorry that so long a delay should have occurred in the matter, but he presumed the timo had not been wasted, and that tho artist was preparing himself by preliminary study for tlie better execution of his design. He was not able to inform tho house when tho model would be ready." The artist in question is universally assumed to be Baron Marochetti, who, like the great animal painter, is, we suppose, qualifying himself in some school, somewhere, for his undertaking. Three years at Oxford or Cambridge entitles a man to his degree, if he is not plucked at examination. Landseer and the Baron, at the end of three years, have not yet sent in their papers. We can only hope that i when produced they will not realise the fablo of tho mons parturiens. To adopt Lord H. Lennox's not very elegant term, though he used it in the house, how the British public are "bamboozled" in the senate on subjects pertaining to Art!
Mr. Redgrave, R.A., and his brother, Mr. S. Redgravo, honorary secretary of the Etching Club, are, it is said, engaged on a History of the British School of Painting. A good work on this subject has long been desired.
Campden House, tho property of Mr. W. F. Woolley, has been destroyed by fire. This ancient mansion, which was situated at Kensington, is presumed to have been erected in the timo of Elizabeth, and had latterly acquired peculiar celebrity from tho amateur theatrical ]ierformances, by artists and literary men, given there for charitable purposes. The interior of the mansion was most elegantly fitted up, the furnituro of the richest description, and the walls were hung with pictures of considerable value. Very little, if any, of the contents escaped destruction. Adjoining is the Elms, occupied by Mr. A. L. Egg, A.R.A., who was at the time, and probably still is, abroad, on account of his health: this nouso took fire, and it was at one time thought that a
like fate would be the result. The exertions of the firemen happily averted it. Mr. Egg possesses some pictures which we should regret to know had been lost; among them Ifohnan Hunt's 'Claudio and Isabella,' which we saw at Leeds a week or two ago, and Wallis's ' Death of Chatterton.'
Statue Of Lobd Haruinge.—Among the great works of Art which visitors may expect to see at the International Exhibition is, we hear, Mr. Foley's model of this fine statue. Our readers are doubtless aware that endeavours are being made, by public subscription, to procure a replica of the statue for erection in this country; the statue itself is in Calcutta. The matter has been left in abeyance by its promoters for some little time, but it will now be taken up energetically, and, it can scarcely be doubted, with success, during the forthcoming season, when the appearance of tho model will attract the notice of thousands, many of whom would be glad to aid the movement. The late secretary at war, the lamented Lord Herbert, gave the project his high sanction, accompanying it with a handsome subscription.
Artists' General Benevolent Institution.— On Saturday, the 30th of March, at the Freemasons Hall, was celebrated by a dinner, tho twenty-seventh anniversary of this beneficial institution. Mr. Charles Diokens occupied tho chair, and delivered an interesting and rigorously appropriate speech; he claimed tho sympathy of the public, on the ground that artists are not more unmethodical, as has often been alleged, in their habits of business, or more improvident than other classes of men, and are subject to the same misfortunes; he extolled the institution, for the admirable and economical manner in which it distributes its funds; and asked for subscriptions on grounds so influential as to have collected, there and then, the sum of nearly .£'650. The attendance was unusually large. Amongst the Roval Academicians present were Sir C. Eastlake, P.R.A., Sir Edwin Landseer, Mr. W. P. Frith, and Baron Marochetti.
Mr. Mouby's Gallery Op British Paintings In Cornuill.—We desire to direct the attention of picture collectors to tho gallery of this dealer: it consists chiefly of cabinet pictures, generally small in size, and, consequently, not very costly. The authenticity of every work is guaranteed. Mr. Morby has long sustained high and honourable repute, and confidence may be placed in his judgment as well as in his integrity. Our space this month permits us only to state that among the works he exhibits just now are examples of many of the best British masters—-Ward, Webster, Hook, Creswick, Dobson, Stanfiold, Linnoll, Goodall, Frost, Cooke, Faed, D. Roberts, Frith, Pickersgill, Poole, Topham, and others of minor, though of good fame. There will soon be many persons in London who desire to complete drawing-room oollections, for which these works are especially calculated.
The Royal Commissioners have invited tho mayors of the ohief towns in Great Britain and the delegates of foreign countries and of British colonies, to furnish (at their own proper cost) flags emblazoned with designs, to be hung in the nave and transepts of the Exhibition building.
The Pictures In The International ExhibiTion.—The series of articles on the paintings and sculpture of several nations in tho Exhibition will bo written by Mr. J. Beavington Atkinson, a gentleman whose long and matured study of the subject, at home and abroad, eminently qualifies him for the discharge of the duty we have assigned to him.
The Medieval Collection which is forming at the South Kensington Museum promises to uphold the high character of the private collections of vertu in England. The chief collectors have very liberally sent on loan many of their finest antiques, and the aggregate will give to tho general public a fair idea of the great treasures hid away in private houses in England. Tho wealth of the country in this way is as remarkable as in any other, and cannot fail to excite interest. It must, however, be borne in mind that this collection by no means fully displays the rich nature of this unworked mine, as many collectors fear the injury and risk which accompany the loans; while others, who have lent heretofore, having the fatal experience of injury done to their treasures, very naturally refuse to part with them again. The wind up of the Exhibition at Manchester was accompanied by the most slovenly and careless return of precious articles lent. Some enamels came home with nail-holes through them. Rare porcelain was sent to wrong owners, and owing to the untrnstworthiness of one of the officials, a portion of the Duke of Portland's contribution was absolutely gold. It is but jurtioe to say that the loans made to Kensington havo been always carefully guarded, and returned with scrupulous attention to package. The new rooms arc exceedingly well adapted to their display.
The Secretary of the Commissioners and the Secretary of the Jurors, are at issue, and have each favoured the Times with a letter. Mr. Iselin, Secretary of tho Jurors, is a new broom, and has received a check thus early from his masters: but sustained as he is by the great " power " of South Kensington, he need care little for Royal Commissioners and their employe's. The correspondence, however, enlightens us thus far—the fortunate youth is doubly fortunate. He slips suddenly and smoothly into an Inspectorship of Science and Art, being duly qualified for the post by knowing nothing of Art and next to nothing of science; but he is also, it appears, made Secretary of Juries, with, of course, another income attached to the "duties." Surely, when the parliamentary grant to South Kensington comes before the house, some one will ask how it happens that Mr. Iselin was appointed about two months ago to the office of Inspector of Science to the Department, and almost immediately afterwards he contrives to slip into the situation of Secretary of Juries at the International Exhibition. We congratulate the gentleman on his singular "luck."
Schools Op Art.—Earl Granville, at a recent meeting to promote the forming of a school of Art in the north of London, is reported to have said that the average cost of the pupils in these institutions was now about threepence annually, whereas a few years back it was one shilling. But bis lordship seems to have lost sight of the fact that within the last two or three years there have been placed under the masters of the provincial schools thechildrcn attending the parochial and other national places of public instruction, to the amount of some hundreds in populous towns, all of whom are taught the rudiments of drawing. Thus, for example, though the number of pupils actually studying in the school of design may not exceed a hundred or two on the average, upwards of a thousand would bo included in the master's report, as coming more or less under his teaching. It will therefore be seen that Earl Granville's congratulatory remark, based on such an estimate as this, is no matter of boasting after all.
Decorative Sculpture.—Every effort made by tho skilful Art-workman to elevate his position deserves whatever aid we can give him. We feel, therefore, much gratification in directing attention to some statues, of small life-size, designed and sculptured by Thomas Nicholls, whom wo may call an artisan-sculptor. They have been executed under tho directions of Mr. Alfred Smith, the architect,—in conjunction with Mr. Parnell,—of tho Army and Navy Club-house, Pall Mall, and are intended to form a portion of a series to be placed in the corridor of a Gothic mansion in Sydney, the residence of Mr. Thomas Mort, for which Mr. Smith has furnished the decorations. The subjects of tho statues already completed are' Whittington,'' Cinderella,''Little Red Riding-Hood,' and a juvenile' Guy Fawkcs,' a boy holding a mask before his face." They are very carefully carved in Caen stone; and in design, character, and execution, are far above ordinary works of a similar kind. The object of the sculptor has been to substitute figures having a domestic interest for the gods and goddesses of mythology.
Irish Antiquities.—Mr. J. P. HennesBy, member for King's County, Ireland, purposes to call the attention of parliament to the destruction of ancient works of Art and objects of national interest in Ireland; and to move ah address to the crown praying that a department of the Board of Works may be specially entrusted with the conservation of public monuments.
Illustrated Sonos Of Robebt Burns. Published by the Koyal Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland, Edinburgh.
We certainly do like the plan now frequently adopted by this Art-Union Society, of giving to their subscribers a book of prints instead of a large single engraving; the latter necessarily entails a considerable extra expense for framing if it is meant to be seen, while in the former no such outlay is incurred, and, moreover, the subscriber has the benefit of greater variety of subject. Among the prizes allotted last year were five pictures, for which commissions were given to as many artists selected from the most popular Scottish painters, to illustrate the Songs of Burns; the engravings from these pictures constitute the volume now before us, which has been distributed to the members of the Association for that year. The first is 'Ca' the Yowes to the Knowes,' by George Harvey, engraved by L. Stocks, an exceedingly pretty pastoral, with a young girl barefooted and bareheaded, accompanied by a collie, driving home tho yowes at eventide. The next is 'My heart's in the Highlands,' by H. McCulloch, engraved by W. Forrest, a richly-composed landscape, in which moor, mountain, and lake are combined, with a fine expanse of stormv cloud-land. The third engraving is by R. C. Bell, from E. Nicol's 'Last May a Braw Wooer.' The scene represents a Scotch fair in the Highlands but the picture is not an agreeable one to our taste. J. Archer's 1 Lea Rig,' engraved by C. W. Sharpe, is far more so, though there is little in it beyond a lassie driving some kine before her. The drawing of the animals is not so correct as it might l>e, but a pleasant poetical feeling pervades tho whole composition. The last plate, 'Logan Braes,' engraved by L. Stocks after A. EL Burr's picture, is too sad a subject to be agreeable, but the sentiment of the poet s lines is very powerfully expressed: for earnest thought, this work must claim precedence over the others.
De Qutncey's Works. Vol. I. Confessions Of An Opium Eatkk. Published by A. and C. Black, Edinburgh.
The writings of De Quincey have long held a conspicuous place among the best literary works of the present century, not alone for their imaginative originality, but also for the powerful, fervid language in which the author's ideas and thoughts are conveyed: a writer in the Quarterly Review well characterises them as " one of the marvels of English literature." That they have not been popular, in the ordinary sense of the word, may be accounted for by the fact that there is in them a peculiarity of feeling which, united with what may be called a Germanic metaphysical tendency, is not suited to the taste of the age: but his critical acumen, his power of expression, his clear and logical style, bave not been exceeded by any writer of the period, and are only equalled by Carlvle. His "Confessions of an Opium Eater" is, perhaps, better known than any other of his works; it was that which first brought him into prominent notice; but his translation of the German authors, Lessing and Richter, are held in high esteem by those who are interested in that especial kind of literature.
Three or four years ago the productions of 0 this great master of English composition," as he has not inaptly been termed, were collected from the various periodicals in which they primarily appeared, and published in serial volumes, after being carefully revised, and considerably enlarged, by the author. A re-issue of the series, at a reduced price, has now been undertaken by the publishers, of which the volume before us is the first instalment; the writings of De Quincey will, by means of this edition, be brought within the rcacn of a numerous class of readers.
Manual Of Wood Carvtno. With Practical Instructions for Learners of tho Art, and Original and Selected Designs. By Willum Bemrosx, Junr. With an Introduction by Li.ewei.ltnn Jewitt, F.S.A., Ac. Ac. Published by J. H. Parkbr A Sons, London and Oxford: Bemrosb And Sons, Derby. Almost every man has some favourite amusement or occupation which, to use a familiar phrase, he "makes his hobby;" and, strange as it may appear to those whose inclinations lead them in an entirely opposite direction, this "hobbyism " sometimes induces its possessor to turn mechanic; that which, perhaps he would scorn to do for gain, he chooses to do for pleasure. We have known persons spend weeks and months in producing some object which
they could purchase, and of a better order too, for a comparatively small sum. Well! the work fills up time—which, however, might possibly be more profitably employed for others—and proves, moreover, a safeguard against idleness if not something worse. Wood carving is one of the mechanical arts practised in the present day by amateurs of both sexes, and it is chiefly, to assist these that Mr. Bemrose's manual is intended: its plan is brief but comprehensive.
The first plate exhibits the different kinds of tools necessary to the operation, and their uses arc explained in the letter-press. This plate is followed by several others consisting of mouldings, panels, tablets pilasters, picture-frames, furniture, both domestic and ecclesiastical, each plate being accompanied by text describing the processes of carving the objects. A short introductory chapter on the art of wood carving, by Mr. L. Jewitt, and two of general instructions for the learner, precede the others.
This book, though published at a very inconsiderable cost, is most carefully got up; the examples are well selected, and engraved with much accuracy and delicacy. They appear to have been copied from existing specimens of the best order, and are not merely the fancies of the designer.
Tire Year-book Of Facts In Science And Art. By John Trans, F.S.A. Published by LockWood A Co., London.
This is another of Mr. Timbs's useful publications a record, gleaned from every available source, of the most important discoveries and improvements of the past year in mechanics and the useful Arts, natural philosophy, electricity, chemistry, zoology and botany, geologv and mineralogy, meteorology and astronomy, and all other scientific matters "ending in y," as the grammars of our school-days informed us. There is an enormous amount of information here compressed into a comparatively narrow compass. On the titlepage is a woodcut of the International Exhibition— certainly no ornament to the book, as it is anything but an ornament to the architecture of the metropolis. In the view taken by the artist, one of the huge, unsightly domes—for one only is seen—completely crushes down the body of the edifice, setting upon it like a hideous incubus. A portrait of the late W. Fairbaim, C.E., is placed as a fitting frontispiece to the book, to which a memoir of this distinguished man of science furnishes an introduction. The first notice refers to the monster building perpetrated at Kensington. In speaking of it, Mr. Timbs says:— "The design by Captain Fowke, of the Royal Engineers was declared" (by the commissioners) "to be accepted? a phrase leading to the inference that the matter had been open to competition; the fact being, as a correspondent said a month or two past in our columns, that it was "done to order, without architecture." The work was given into tho hands of Captain Fowke to "do."
Men Of The Tdte: A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Living Characters (includingWomen). A New Edition, thoroughly revised and brought down to the Present Time. By Edward WalFord, M.A., late Scholar of Baliol College, Oxford. Published by Routledoe, Wajrne, and Routledoe, London and New York.
The compilation of a book of this description is a task not easy to perform satisfactorily, even for the author. His great difficulty is to know where to draw the line of demarcation between people deserving of being enrolled among the "eminent," and those who have no title to such distinction: of course the compiler must use his own judgment on these matters, and must submit to the charges that will inevitably follow of sins both of omission and commission. Mr. Walford must be pronounced guilty on both counts his more heinous offences being of the latter kind. Out of the large number of more than two thousand names included in this dictionary, how many are unknown out of their own immediate circle of friends and acquaintances; how few will be heard of when the grave has closed over them; while fewer still will ever appear on the page of the world's history: men and women really "eminent" are rarities.
Still, allowing for manifold shortcomings this biographical dictionary is one that shows remarkable industry and research into the lives of contemporaneous individuals scattered over every part of the civilised world. The record of their doings whatever these may be, is written at sufficient length to enable the reader to become acquainted with the principal events of their histories, and is stated impartially. "Men of the Time" ought to find a place in every library, and is almost a necessity in every household in these days when.
THE ROYAL ACADEMY.
GLANCEatthewalls of the Academy shows that the year 18G2 has been looked forward to by painters with less expectant emotion than was the year 1851. It is remembered that, to those who anticipated amended circumstances from ita advent and passage, 1851 did not bring healing on its wings; hence, clearly, there has been no extraordinary prepara~$ tion to make it an era of Art. On the 'contrary, some of those for whose works we habitually look are defaulters, while others are untrue to themselves.
In judging many we set up too commonly a standard hased upon the utmost excellence to which they have ever attained. This, in respect of Art, is unjust, since it happens, in ordinary cases, that artists do not during their lives attain three times to the highest point which they may have reached on some memorable occasion. But below this there is a mediate degree which may always be reached; and this is far above the vulgar infirmities into which all men fall in Art when they would spare the mind thought and the hand exercise. By this standard it is more just to estimate them than by the higher scale which they reach by a combination of circumstances that may occur but once in a lifetime. In judging the works of young painters, we refer only to the works of others, but when artists have made a reputation, they are subjected to a more severe ordeal,—they are first tried according to themselves, and then judged by the works of others. Before a full and perfect judgment of a work of Art can be pronounced, it is indispensable to know what reference the picture bears to antecedent productions by the same hand; and in thus looking at those around us in the Academy, we find many men working below the middle standard which they themselves may be said to have established. This coincidence is, perhaps, on the present occasion more striking than in any recent exhibition.
There are wanting in the catalogue of exhibitors the names of certain men of note whose pictures are always centres of attraction. The President does not exhibit anything; nor does Sir Edwin Landseer. It is probable that the latter has been occupied with the lions in Trafalgar Square; be that as it may, he has besides finished a group of portraits—a work not in the direct line of his practice—of which the principal is that of the late Mr. F. B. Sheridan. Mr. Maclise has been so entirely occupied with his great work in the Royal Gallery
in the Houses of Parliament, as not to be able to prepare anything, and perhaps the same may be said of Mr. Dyce. Herbert exhibits one picture, but it is not a subject adapted to draw forth his power. Mulready has one work, but it is not culled from that field where he has won so many triumphs. Ward has sent only a water-colour drawing —ever Marie Antoinette. Frith, Egg, and several other members, do not appear at all in the catalogue.
We believe that if any picture in what, sixty years ago, used to be called the "grand style," were now exhibited in the Academy, if it were not passed by without notice, it would be extinguished by the aurora borealis of flickering light and colour around it. But we are not alone in our predilection for small pictures of small subjects; the French have given a greater importance to their small pictures than we have to ours. Although almost miniatures in numerous cases, we find these small compositions treated with a consideration equal to that which would be given to a large one.
We see in the Academy, in a remarkable manner, the effect of exhibitions; and those half cognisant of the distance, in certain qualities, between the art of our time and that of the old painters, have only to fancy a Poussin or a Salvator surrounded by Stanfields and Linnells and their imitators, and they will at once understand what exhibitions have done and undone. There are not many figure compositions in the collection that may not be referred to two absorbing classes—the domestic and the sentimental. Religious Art plays a very subordinate part, and "pure history" is an exploded taste. What our neighbours call genre pictures (wherefore we could never understand) are the legitimate field for all the legerdemain of painting, and all this is seen and relished by the Art-patrons of our day. Our Young England painters excel in all those chiques of the art which the men of the last century never heard of, and to which contemporary seniors do not condescend. To these artists space and prominence is very profusely given. There is nothing too eccentric for them; their quart and tierce has a flashing effect—the despair of elder men, for whom to essay the same thing would be like the Lord Chancellor attempting some exotic dance on the floor of the House of Lords. Long ago did we foretell the complexion to which "Pre-Raffaellism" would at last come. If there be any such works on the walls, they are very few and not prominent. We cannot now refer the works of Mr. Millais and his circle to that kind of Art which was announced years ago as the profession of the so-called "Pro-Raffaellite Brethren"—in the affectation of thready textures and sharp edges. Mr. Millais's works are now less offensive than those of others who seek to establish the right of Pre-Raffaellism to themselves. But of works of this class we shall presently have more to say. Many, we repeat, of our eminent men are this year painting downwards rather than upwards from their settled standard.
In (231) 'Laborare est erare,' J. R. HekBeht, R.A., exhibits what is essentially a landscape, the substantive reality of which is "The monks of St. Bernard's Abbey, Leicestershire, gathering the harvest of 1801. The boys in the adjoining field are from the Reformatory, under the care of these religious." This note is preceded by the verses from St. Luke—"And some fell upon a rock; and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture. And some fell among thorns; and the thoms sprung up with it, and choked it," &c. The scene is a broad daylight landscape, the nearer breadths
of which are covered with an expanse of ripe wheat, which a number of monks are busily engaged in reaping. The landscape is peculiar, as presenting two rocks rising conspicuously in the middle distance, but this would not by any means be sufficient to suggest any reference to the parable, for the pith of the picture is the "laborare," without any point beyond. As a landscape then, and a harvest subject, it is painted with a tenderness very suggestive, but more than this is necessary to raise the picture into the atmosphere of sacred Art. The picture is a surprise, inasmuch as we believe that Mr. Herbert has never, during; his brilliant career, exhibited a landscape. To congratulate him on the success with which he brings such a work forward, would not be complimentary. The painter of the 'Disinheritance of Cordelia and the 'Boy Daniel,' may dispense with eulogistic notice of a landscape, which can be regarded but as a diversion.
The picture numbered 129, by A. Iitjgiies, is strongly suggestive of Correggio's ' Magdalen,' and this is much against it. It contains one principal figure, that of a love-lorn girl, lying by a pool, and, of course, meditating suicide. The picture is a translation from Tennyson:—
"It is the little rift wiihin the lute
Nothing can be more circumstantial than this story of a broken heart; its merit is its simplicity.
'The Return of a Crusader' (179), by F. R. Pickehsgilt., is the most pointed and probable narrative that Mr. PicKersgill has ever exhibited. There are two figures, the returned crusader and a nun. He has been absent in the holy wars for years, and no tidings of him have ever reached his betrothed. She, persuaded of his death, becomes a mm, and in the garden of the convent, where she has been sitting in meditation, he presents himself before her. His hair has become grey, and she does not recognise him; he presents to her, however, her last gift to him—a ring —and she is slowly convinced of his identity. The only incomplete passage in the picture is the expression of the mm, her features do not bespeak that agonising emotion which under such circumstances must smite a woman's heart. We should not have recognised this as the work of the paladin and troubadour painter, F. R. Pickersgill. The figures and their accompaniments are admirably fitted together; everything is perfectly at its ease, but all this is a result of great experience and masterly power.
In 193 we come to 'The Ransom,' the most important of the works of Mr. Millais; whence we learn that there is a question of the ransom of two children—two girls—of a noble family, who, we must imagine, have been in some way abducted from the paternal roof. The persons introduced are, we may suppose, the father, a gentleman in armour, and with him it may be an elder brother of the two children, who are clinging to their father in dread of the man who yet grasps their hands as unwilling to part with them for the sum offered, which seems to be all that the gentlemen have about them, for thev are offering in addition a pearl necklace, with some valuable jewels. But the narrative is nevertheless obscure; the man who yet seems to withhold the children does not look ruffian enough to have seized and held them for a ransom. Moreover the rich tapestry that forms the background of the picture, would indicate that the children are either at home or in some luxurious abode, where such outrages are not perpetrated. The balance of power is also in favour of the noble family; it is therefore difficult to understand the extreme solicitude of the