Aeolian Sand and Sand Dunes

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 14, 2008 - Science - 458 pages
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It is more than half a century since the publication of R. A. Bagnold’s classic book The physics of blown sand and desert dunes, and it is a tribute to the quality of Bagnold’s work that many of the fundamental principles which he developed - main valid today. His book continues to be essential reading for any serious s- dent of aeolian processes. However, the past two decades have seen an explosion in the scale of research dealing with aeolian transport processes, sediments, and landforms. Some of this work has been summarized in review papers and edited conference proceedings, but this book provides the rst attempt to review the whole eld of aeolian sand research. Inevitably, it has not been possible to cover all - pects in equal depth, and the balance of included material naturally re ects the - thors’ own interests to a signi cant degree. However, our aim has been to provide as broad a perspective as possible, and to provide an entry point to an extensive mul- disciplinary scienti c literature, some of which has not been given the attention it deserves in earlier textbooks and review papers. Many examples are drawn from existing published work, but the book also makes extensive use of our own research in the Middle East, Australia, Europe, and North America. The book has been written principally for use by advanced undergraduates, po- graduates, and more senior research workers in geomorphology and sedimentology.
 

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Contents

6352 Oblique Dunes
216
636 Star Dunes
219
637 Dome Dunes
223
64 Vegetated Dunes
224
641 Hummock Dunes
225
642 Parabolic and Elongate Parabolic Dunes
229
643 Precipitation Ridges
237
644 Lunette Dunes
238

23 Storm Types that Generate SandTransporting Winds
18
232 Atmospheric Stability and Instability in Subtropical Deserts
21
233 Dust Devils
23
234 Squalls
24
235 Wind Regimes in the Worlds Deserts
26
236 Coastal Wind Regimes
30
24 Flow in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
32
242 Variation of Wind Velocity with Height
35
Bernoulli Equation and Separation of Flow
40
244 The Drag Force
43
245 Airflow over Isolated Hills and Complex Terrain
46
Characteristics of Windblown Sediments
51
312 Grain Size Scales
53
313 Grain Mass and Density
54
314 Graphical Presentation of Grain Size Data
56
315 Graphical Statistical Parameters
58
316 Moment Parameters
60
318 LogHyperbolic Parameters
61
32 Grain Shape
65
322 Grain Roundness
67
323 Grain Surface Texture
68
325 Behavioural Indicators of Grain Shape
71
33 Porosity Permeability and Packing of Sands
72
34 Grain Size Characteristics of Aeolian Sediments
74
342 Differentiation Between Aeolian Dune and Other Environments
77
343 Grain Size Variations Within Dune Fields and on Individual Dunes
80
35 Shape Characteristics of Aeolian Dune Sands
82
36 Surface Textures of Aeolian Sands
86
37 Porosity and Permeability of Aeolian Sands
89
381 Weathering and Erosion of Crustal Rocks
90
382 Formation of SandSize Particles in the NearSurface Environment
92
3823 Volcaniclastic Sands
94
3824 Carbonate Ooids and Peloids
95
383 Formation of Biogenic Carbonate Sand
96
Mechanics of Aeolian Sand Transport
99
412 Threshold of Grain Movement
101
413 Impact Threshold
106
414 Threshold Velocities for Poorly Sorted Sediments
108
415 Effect of Bed Slope on Threshold Velocity
109
416 Effect of Moisture Content and Cementing Agents on Threshold Velocity
110
417 Effects of NonErodible Roughness Elements and Vegetation on Particle Entrainment
113
422 Suspension
116
424 Wind Velocity Profile During Saltation
124
425 Contact Load Surface Creep
127
426 Sand Transport Rate
128
427 Avalanching of Sand on Dune Slip Faces
136
The Formation of Sand Seas and Dune Fields
140
53 Factors Controlling the Distribution and Magnitude of Sand Seas
147
532 Relationship Between Sand Deposits and Climate
153
533 Time Required for the Development of Ergs and Dune Fields
155
54 Development of Sand Seas in Relation to Topography
156
55 Wind Regime and Regional Sand Flow Paths
159
56 Evolution of Ergs in Response to Climatic Changes
168
57 Effect of SeaLevel Changes on Coastal Dune Fields
170
58 Effect of SeaLevel Changes on Continental Dune Fields
172
Aeolian Bed Forms
175
62 Ripples
176
622 Effect of Wind Velocity and Grain Size on Aeolian Ripple Development
178
623 Models of Ripple Formation
180
624 Adhesion Ripples
184
63 Sand Dunes
185
632 Dune Accumulation Influenced by Topographic Obstacles
190
6322 Echo Dunes
192
6323 CliffTop Dunes
195
6332 Development of a SteadyState Dune Profile
197
6333 Flow Separation and the Development of a Dune SlipFace
200
635 Linear Dunes
206
6351 Development of Seif Dunes
209
645 Vegetated Linear Dunes
239
65 Sand Sheets
245
652 Zibar
247
653 Cold Climate Sand Sheets
248
66 Summary of Factors Determining the Morphology of Aeolian Sand Accumulations
251
Internal Sedimentary Structures of Aeolian Sand Deposits
254
72 Internal Structures of Sand Dunes
258
722 Internal Structure of Barchans
262
723 Internal Structure of Transverse Dunes
266
725 Internal Structure of Unvegetated Dome Dunes
270
727 Internal Structures of Shadow Dunes
273
728 Internal Structures of Vegetated Coastal Dunes
275
7210 Nature and Origin of Bounding Surfaces
277
73 Secondary Sedimentary Structures in Dunes
280
74 Sedimentary Structures of Interdune Areas and Sand Sheets
284
742 ExtraDune Sand Sheets
289
75 NiveoAeolian Deposits and Cryogenic Structures in ColdClimate Dunes
290
PostDepositional Modification of Dune Sands
293
82 Denudation by Rain Splash Surface Wash Soil Creep and Gullying
294
83 NearSurface Compaction
295
85 Weathering and Pedogenesis of Siliceous Dune Sands
297
853 Heavy Minerals
298
8532 Quartz
299
854 Physical Weathering Processes
301
856 Silica Coatings and Cementation
307
857 Formation of Soil Profiles in Dune Sands
309
86 Formation of Carbonate Aeolianites
316
862 Controls on Carbonate Cementation in Aeolianites
318
8622 Effects of Rainfall and Evaporation
322
8623 Effects of Vegetation
324
863 Calcrete Horizons in Carbonate Dune Sands
325
864 Karstification of Aeolianites
327
866 Regressive Diagenesis of Aeolianites
328
Management and Human Use of Sand Dune Environments
329
912 Sand Moisture Regime
331
913 Other Factors Which Influence Dune Vegetation
336
92 Water Courses in Dune Areas
338
93 Control of Windblown Sand
340
9311 Surface Stabilization by Mulches
341
9312 Physical Barriers to Airflow
342
932 Enhancement of Sand Transport
343
933 Diversion of Moving Sand
344
9342 Sand Ditches
349
9344 Combined Stabilization Methods
354
935 Control of Moving Dunes
355
941 Cultivation on Desert Sand
356
942 Cultivation and Grazing on Coastal Dunes
358
943 Urban Development and Recreational Activities
360
944 Sand Mining
361
945 Dunes and Water Supply
362
946 Coastal Dunes as Natural Sea Defences
364
Aeolian Research Techniques
369
102 Measurement of Sand Movement Using Sand Traps
374
1021 Horizontal Sand Traps
375
1022 Vertical Sand Traps
376
1023 Surface Creep Traps
381
104 Methods of Sample Collection for Grain Size and Mineralogical Analysis
385
105 Methods of Determining the Grain Size of Sands
388
10512 Dry Sieving
389
10513 Wet Sieving
390
1052 Settling Tube Analysis
391
1054 Direct Measurement of Grain Size by Image Analysis
392
1062 Flow Visualization
393
1072 Remote Sensing
394
SI units and cgs equivalents
396
References
399
Index
453
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