American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past
Pronghorn antelope are the fastest runners in North America, clocked at speeds of up to 100 kilometers per hour. Yet none of their current predators can come close to running this fast. Pronghorn also gather in groups, a behavior commonly viewed as a "safety in numbers" defense. But again, none of their living predators are fearsome enough to merit such a response.
In this elegantly written book, John A. Byers argues that these mystifying behaviors evolved in response to the dangerous predators with whom pronghorn shared their grassland home for nearly four million years: among them fleet hyenas, lions, and cheetahs. Although these predators died out ten thousand years ago, pronghorn still behave as if they were present—as if they were living with the ghosts of predators past.
Byers's provocative hypothesis will stimulate behavioral ecologists and mammalogists to consider whether other species' adaptations are also haunted by selective pressures from predators past. The book will also find a ready audience among evolutionary biologists and paleontologists.
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Chapter One Survivors from Another World
Chapter Two Methods and Materials
Modal Social Organization
Chapter Four Birth and the Hiding Strategy
Chapter Vive Behavioral Development
Chapter Six Lifetime Dominance Ranks of Females and Males
The Level of Expenditure
Age Rank and Individual Differences
A Short Dangerous Life
Conflict and Cooperation between the Sexes
Chapter Eleven The Ghosts of Predators Past
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adult agonistic agonistic interaction Antilocapra apparent behavior Bekoff birth date birth weight bison Bovidae Byers Cervidae Clutton-Brock coyotes deer defense differences dominance interactions dominance status effect energy cost estrus date fawn birth fawn survival fawn's feeding displacement female fawns figure focal hour foraging efficiency harem harem male hidden fawns hiding strategy horn individuals interaction rate Kitchen lifetime number Linear regression male and female male fawns mammals Mann-Whitney tests mate choice mating success mortality move National Bison Range nearest-neighbor distance observed one-way ANOVA percentage Pleistocene plotted polygynous population predators prenatal growth rate pronghorn fawns pronghorn females pronghorn males pronghorn mothers Pursh reclining regression reproductive value resource running saber-toothed cats sample season sex ratio sexual selection significant social rank sparring spring suckling bouts suckling rate summer switching territorial tion traits ungulates urine variance variation weaning Week of Age white-tailed deer winter yearlings