Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs

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OUP Oxford, Mar 26, 2009 - History - 344 pages
Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs is the first detailed consideration of the ways in which Anglo-Saxon society dealt with social outcasts. Beginning with the period following Roman rule and ending in the century following the Norman Conquest, it surveys a period of fundamental social change, which included the conversion to Christianity, the emergence of the late Saxon state, and the development of the landscape of the Domesday Book. While an impressive body of written evidence for the period survives in the form of charters and law-codes, archaeology is uniquely placed to investigate the earliest period of post-Roman society - the fifth to seventh centuries - for which documents are lacking. For later centuries, archaeological evidence can provide us with an independent assessment of the realities of capital punishment and the status of outcasts. Andrew Reynolds argues that outcast burials show a clear pattern of development in this period. In the pre-Christian centuries, 'deviant' burial remains are found only in community cemeteries, but the growth of kingship and the consolidation of territories during the seventh century witnessed the emergence of capital punishment and places of execution in the English landscape. Locally determined rites, such as crossroads burial, now existed alongside more formal execution cemeteries. Gallows were located on major boundaries, often next to highways, always in highly visible places. The findings of this pioneering national study thus have important consequences on our understanding of Anglo-Saxon society. Overall, Reynolds concludes, organized judicial behaviour was a feature of the earliest Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, rather than just the two centuries prior to the Norman Conquest.
 

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Contents

1 Sources approaches and contexts
1
interpretation and discovery
34
the fifth to seventh centuries
61
the seventh to eleventh centuries
96
5 The geography of deviant burial in AngloSaxon England
180
the wider social context
235
Appendix 1 A handlist of AngloSaxon lawcodes prescribing capital punishment mutilation and burial in unconsecrated ground
251
Appendix 2 A handlist of early AngloSaxon deviant burials
262
Appendix 3 A handlist of select burials from execution cemeteries
266
Appendix 4 A handlist of execution and related sites and burial places in AngloSaxon charter bounds
272
Bibliography
282
Index
313
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About the author (2009)


After a career in field archaeology Andrew Reynolds studied for the BA Medieval Archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology, UCL, where he completed his PhD in 1998. His core research interests are the archaeology and history of state formation and landscape structure in Anglo-Saxon England, in comparative European perspective. He is now Reader in Medieval Archaeology at the Institute. Andrew's fieldwork and research interests have taken him from the UK to Ethiopia and Russia, while he is currently working on early medieval rural settlement in the Basque Country.

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