Apollo: The Definitive Sourcebook

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 15, 2006 - Nature - 633 pages
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On 25 May 1961, John F Kennedy announced the goal of landing an American man on the Moon by the end of the decade. This challenge forced NASA to review the planned lunar landing of a three-man spaceship named Apollo in the mid-1970s. In 1962, it was decided that a specialized vehicle would accompany the main spacecraft, to make the lunar landing while the mothership remained in lunar orbit. To send these vehicles to the Moon would require the development of an enormous rocket. Development was protracted, but in December 1968 Apollo 8 was launched on a pioneering mission to perform an initial reconnaissance in lunar orbit. When Apollo 17 lifted off from the Moon in December 1972, the program was concluded. Now, at long last, there is a real prospect of a resumption of human exploration of the Moon.

This book provides an overview of the origins of the Apollo program and descriptions of the ground facilities, launch vehicles and spacecraft that will serve as an invaluable single-volume sourcebook for space enthusiasts, space historians, journalists, and programme-makers on radio and TV. It supplements tha other books that have focused on the politics and management of the Apollo program, the astronauts, and their training and exploits.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
A manned satellite
2
The Saturn launch vehicle
3
NASAS longterm plan
6
Conceiving the Apollo spacecraft
7
The way to the moon the mission mode
9
Change of administration
10
Kennedys challenge
11
Earth orbit phase
227
Recovery
232
mission objectives
233
Mission timeline
248
Testing the LM in lunar orbit
255
Launch preparations
256
Earth orbit phase
259
Lunar orbit phase
260

The mode debate continues
14
Saturn testing starts
16
Mercury mark it?
17
Issuing contracts
19
Reorganization
21
The decision for Gemini
23
Deciding the mission mode
24
Mission planning issues
27
Lem design issues
29
Ongoing changes
30
Mueller takes charge
31
Kennedys assassination
34
Refining the docking system
36
Refining the LEM
37
Suit issues
40
Gearing up
41
Developing th Saturn V
44
Preparing Apollo
45
Setback and recovery
49
Picking up the pace
52
The first Saturn V flight
53
Overcoming problems with daring plans
55
Dress rehearsal
60
The landing crew
61
Development program
63
first flight test
64
Completing Phase I
65
Phase II testing
66
Conclusions
69
A CSM on a ballistic arc
75
Ascent phase
76
Postboost phase
79
Conclusions
80
Mission timeline
82
Evaluating the SIVB
85
Ascent phase
86
Earth orbit phase
88
Conclusions
89
Mission timeline
91
Testing the CM heat shield
93
Ascent phase
95
Recovery
97
Conclusions
98
Mission timeline
103
Cabin fire
105
Vehicle history
106
Chronology of the fire
111
Investigation
112
The cause of the fire
115
First test of the Saturn V
121
Ascent phase
124
Earth orbit phase
126
Recovery
127
Mission timeline
137
Unmanned test of the LM
139
Ascent phase
140
Conclusions
143
Mission objectives
146
Mission timeline
148
Second test of the Saturn V
151
Earth orbit phase
154
Recovery
157
Mission objectives
165
Mission timeline
168
Testing the CSM in Earth orbit
171
Launch preparations
172
Earth orbit phase
173
Recovery
180
Mission objectives
187
Mission timeline
190
Testing the CSM in lunar orbit
195
Launch preparations
197
Ascent phase
199
Earth orbit phase
201
Lunar orbit phase
203
Transearth phase
205
Recovery
206
Conclusions
207
Mission objectives
215
Mission timeline
218
Testing the LM in Earth orbit
223
Launch preparations
224
Transearth phase
263
Recovery
264
Conclusions
265
Mission objectives
272
Mission timeline
274
Landing on Mare Tranquilitatis
279
Landing sight
280
Launch preparations
285
Ascent phase
286
Earth orbit phase
289
Lunar orbit and lunar surface phase
290
Transearth phase
294
Recovery
295
Conclusions
296
Mission objectives
298
Mission timeline
319
Landing in Oceanus Procellarum
327
Landing sight
328
Launch sights
329
Earth orbit phase
333
Lunar orbit and lunar surface phase
334
Transearth phase
338
Conclusions
339
Mission objectives
341
Mission timeline
353
Inflight abort
361
Landing site
362
Launch preparations
363
Ascent phase
365
Earth orbit phase
367
Abort
368
Recovery
371
Conclusions
372
Mission objectives
375
Mission timeline
385
Landing in the Fra Mauro Formation
393
Launch preparations
394
Ascent phase
396
Earth orbit phase
398
Lunar orbit and lunar surface phase
399
Transearth phase
403
Conclusions
404
Mission objectives
406
Mission timeline
415
Landing at HadleyApennine
425
Landing site
426
Launch preparations
427
Ascent phase
430
Lunar orbit and lunar surface phase
432
Transearth phase
436
Conclusions
437
Mission objectives
441
Mission timeline
461
Landing at DescartesCaley
471
Landing site
472
Launch preparations
473
Earth orbit phase
476
Lunar orbit and lunar surface phase
478
Transearth phase
481
Recovery
482
Conclusions
483
Mission objectives
495
Mission timeline
497
Landing at TaurusLittrow
507
Landing site
508
Launch preparations
510
Ascent phase
511
Earth orbit phase
514
Lunar orbit and lunar surface phase
515
Transearth phase
519
Recovery
520
Mission objectives
522
Mission timeline
536
In retrospect
547
NASAS assessment
548
The outstanding mystery
549
Appendix
551
Glossary
615
Bibliography
619
Index
627
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About the author (2006)

Richard Orloff is a historian of the Apollo program who, in 2000, compiled a review of the Apollo missions, supplemented by a comprehensive tabular statistical reference. This was published by NASA and is now out of print. David Harland is also a space historian who has studied and written extensively about the Apollo program.

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