Artificial Believers: The Ascription of Belief
Modeling of individual beliefs is essential to the computer understanding of natural languages. Phenomena at all levels -- syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic -- cannot be fully analyzed in the absence of models of a hearer and of the hearer's model of other believers. The heart of this text is the presentation of an artificial intelligence (AI) program intended to simulate certain aspects of a human believer. This book provides a prolog program, Viewgen, that maintains belief structures about the world and other believers, and is able to ascribe beliefs to others without direct evidence by using a form of default reasoning. The authors contend that a plausible model such as this can -- in the best cognitive science tradition -- shed light on the long-standing philosophical problem of what belief is.
The issues presented here will be of considerable interest to an informed general reader as well as those with a background in any of the disciplines that make up what is now called cognitive science: philosophy, linguistics, psychology, neuropsychology, and also AI itself.
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agent algorithm approach artiﬁcial believer Artiﬁcial Intelligence ascribe beliefs assume assumption atypical belief autoepistemic logic Ballim Barnden Bel John Bel Mark Bel System belief ascription belief environments belief revision belief spaces claim cognitive science computational conﬂict consider construct context default rule deﬁne deﬁnition degenerate environments dialogue difﬁcult discussed entities evaluation relation example explicit expression ﬁnd ﬁrst Fodor formal formula Frank hearer human individuals inference intensional objects issue Jim's father John believes John’s knowledge Konolige languages of thought linguistic lisp logic machine Mary meaning mental metaphor modal logic natural language Natural Language Processing nesting notion one’s partitions percolation philosophical phone number predicate problem propositional attitudes pushing Rapaport reasoning represent representation scientiﬁc semantics sense sentences Situation Semantics SNePs speaker speciﬁc speech acts structures SW’s System believes system Figure system’s view thalassemia theory of belief tion topic environment truth utterance ViewGen viewpoint Wilks