Britain and the Vatican During the Second World War

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Cambridge University Press, Jun 24, 1988 - History - 344 pages
1 Review
The book studies the use made by the British government of its envoy, immured inside the Vatican from 1940 to 1944, and what the envoy made of such opportunities during the Second World War to help the Allied cause. We see the Vatican, the Fascist Italy, from 'inside', and so gain a new and rare perspective into the predicament of the papacy. Owen Chadwick gives insight into the workings of the Vatican, including such questions as the struggle to keep Italy out of the war, the relations between the Vatican and the Fascist government, the use which the British sought to make of Vatican radio, the question of condemning atrocities, the bombing of Rome, the fall of Fascism, the armistice between the Allies and Italy, the German occupation of Rome, and the escape line for British prisoners of war. The author has used several groups of hitherto unexplored archives, and makes a fresh contribution both to the history of the Second World War and to the modern history of the papacy.
 

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Contents

Britain and the Vatican in the last years of Pope Pius XI 193539
1
ii A Fascist Pope?
7
iii Osborne
13
iv A Pope against Hitler
16
The Conclave of 1939
30
The peace plans of Pius XII
57
The winter war 193940
79
ii The German conspiracy
86
iv Greek famine
190
v The German invasion of Russia
193
vi Prisonersofwar
196
The Jews in 1942
198
ii Vatican information
201
iii The coming of Tittmann
202
iv The Jewish deportations
204
The bombing of Rome
222

iii American intervention
100
The Italian entry into the war
104
ii The rights of diplomats in war
114
iii The entry into the Vatican
117
First months in the Vatican
124
ii The French armistice
132
iii Radio Vaticana
141
Surveillance I
150
ii Ecclesiastics in the Vatican
154
iii Swiss Guards
160
v Italian servants
165
vi The Vatican police
168
vii Rumours among Fascists
173
viii Rumour and German intelligence
176
Surveillance II the bag
181
ii The Italian Curia
187
ii British bombing policy
224
iii Rome an open city?
236
The Italian Armistice
246
ii The fall of Mussolini
259
iii The making of the Armistice
263
The German Occupation
275
ii Allied bombing
277
iii The Jews of Rome
288
iv The Ardeatine caves
289
v The interval between occupations
290
vi The escape line
291
Aftermath
301
Select bibliography
318
Index
323
Copyright

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About the author (1988)

William Owen Chadwick was born in London, England on May 20, 1916. He received a degree in history in 1938 and a degree in theology in 1939 from St. John's College in Cambridge. He attended Cuddeson, a theological college, to study for holy orders. The Church of England ordained him a deacon in 1940 and a priest in 1941. He was master of Selwyn College, Cambridge University, for almost 30 years, beginning in the mid-1950s and retiring in 1983. He was chancellor of the University of East Anglia from 1985 to 1994. In 1966, he was put at the head of a commission to redefine Parliament's role in church affairs. When put into effect, the recommendations of the Chadwick Report, retained the ties between the Church of England and the state but gave the church greater control over the appointment of bishops. It also ended Parliament's nominal control over changes in doctrine and ritual. He wrote numerous books during his lifetime including John Cassian: A Study in Primitive Monasticism, The Reformation, The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century, Victorian Miniature, The Victorian Church, The Christian Church in the Cold War, and A History of Christianity. He oversaw the publications of a 16-volume work entitled The Oxford History of the Christian Church. He also wrote three volumes himself: The Popes and European Revolution, A History of the Popes, 1830-1914, and The Early Reformation on the Continent. He died on July 17, 2015 at the age of 99.

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