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THE RISE OF CENTRAL BANKING
U THE CENTRAL BANK AS BANK OF ISSUE
THE CENTRAL BANK AS THE GOVERNMENTS BANKER
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adjustments adopted advances amount assets balance of payments Bank of England Bank of France bank of issue Bank rate Bank's bankers bonds borrowing Britain business activity capital cash reserves cent central bank central bank credit changes circumstances co-operation commercial banks countries credit control credit structure currency demand deposits depreciation direct discount market discount rate discount-rate policy economic effect example Exchange Equalisation Account exchange rates expansion factors Federal Reserve Banks Federal Reserve System fluctuations foreign exchange function Fund Fund's further gold reserve gold standard Government securities holdings of Government increase investment lender of last liabilities limit liquid loans maintain means member banks ment minimum reserve monetary policy money market money rates Moreover National Bank note circulation note issue open-market operations parity period powers purchases purpose raised rediscount reduced regard regulation Reichsbank reserve requirements restrictions result short-term South Africa stabilisation Sweden trade Treasury bills United