Competitiveness and Growth in Brazilian Cities: Local Policies and Actions for Innovation

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Ming Zhang
World Bank Publications, Nov 19, 2009 - Political Science - 218 pages
'Competitiveness and Growth in Brazilian Cities' addresses the question of what cities can do to improve economic performance and create jobs. The topic is explored through a review of theories and policy options for city competitiveness, preliminary benchmarking of Brazilian cities, and case studies of two urban areas in Northeast Brazil the Cariri region, Cear and S o Lu s, Maranh o. The book concludes that to be competitive, cities need to reduce the cost of doing business by improving their services and infrastructure and by reducing bureaucracies. But for a middle-income country such as Brazil, which needs to be economically competitive in a globalized environment, this is not sufficient. Cities also need to add value to local businesses. A crucial part of their strategy should be to create and sustain an environment that stimulates local firms to innovate and learn from each other, to nurture the creation of synergies generated by the interconnected economic clusters in the city, and to provide incentives for all local players to continuously upgrade their level of competitiveness. With regard to local policy actions, this book highlights the cluster approach to competitiveness, with its focus on facilitating private-sector collaborations for collective efficiency. 'Competitiveness and Growth in Brazilian Cities' provides many examples of actions that may be undertaken at the local level, emphasizing the critical importance for cities to pursue a unique strategy based on their comparative and competitive advantages.
 

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Contents

Figure 13 Theoretical Relationships between Local Competition and Competitive Advantage
41
Figure 14 Primary Determinants of Cluster Competitiveness in Developing and Developed Countries
42
Table 12 Different Forms of Investment and Their Relationship to City Competitiveness
47
Chapter 2 What Can Cities Do to Enhance Competitiveness? Local Policies and Actions for Innovation
55
Using Location Quotient and Employment Growth Rate
58
Figure 22 The Napa Wine Cluster
60
Table 21 Different Policies for Different Cluster Types
63
Figure 23 The Cluster Working Group Process
64
Chianti Classico Siena Italy
66
The Electronics Industry in Guadalajara Mexico
68
Footwear Development in Rio Grande do Sul
69
Box 24 Creating State Entrepreneurship Centers in the United States
71
Box 25 Technology Centers
72
Box 26 RDThe Helsinki Culminatum Finland
74
Box 27 Skills TrainingThe Jane Addams Resource Corporation Illinois United States
76
Box 28 Strategic Plan of Turin Italy
83
Box 29 Agency for Economic Development of the Greater ABC Region São Paulo Brazil
87
Chapter 3 Benchmarking the Competitiveness of Brazilian Cities
93
Figure 31 Four Dimensions of the Competitiveness Index
94
Table 31 Variables Used for the Four Dimensions of the Competitiveness Index
95
Box 31 Principal Component Analysis
97
Table 32 Competitiveness Index for Large Brazilian Cities in 2000
98
Table 33 Competitiveness Index for Medium Brazilian Cities in 2000
100
Table 34 Competitiveness Index for Small Brazilian Cities in 2000
102
Figure 32 Comparison of São Paulo Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre along the Four Dimensions of Competitiveness
103
Figure 33 Comparison of Teresina between 1991 and 2000 for Three Dimensions of the Competitiveness Index
104

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