Development Projects as Policy Experiments: An Adaptive Approach to Development Administration
As international agencies' assistance strategies become more complex, their methods of planning and administration become less effective. Neither the rationalistic techniques of planning and management they adopted during the 1960s and 1970s to control development activities nor the structural adjustment models they used during the 1980s and 1990s to reform economic policies, encouraged the flexibility, experimentation and social learning that are crucial to implementing successfully complex and uncertain development activities. Urgent reorientation of development programmes and continuous testing and verification is required if development activity is to cope effectively with the uncertainty and complexity of the development process.
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adjustment loans administrative capacity agricultural analysis approach areas argued Bangladesh beneficiaries budget bureaucracies capital changes complex costs created decision-making decisions demonstration projects developing countries developing nations development activities development administration development assistance development plans development policies development problems development programs economic growth effective Esman evaluation experience experimental projects farmers foreign formulate funding goals governments in developing groups income increase industrial innovations institutions international agencies international assistance organizations international organizations investment izations Kenya Latin America leaders levels macroeconomic ment mentation methods ministries national development national planning needs nomic objectives officials organizational participation percent pilot projects planning and management political poor countries poverty production proposals Public choice theories rationalistic reforms replicated Rondinelli rural development projects Saemaul Sahel social staff strategies structural adjustment loans structural adjustment policies success technical techniques uncertainty UNDP United Nations urban USAID World Bank