Environmental health engineering in the tropics: an introductory text
Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics An Introductory Text Sandy Cairncross UNICEF/WHO Interagency Team for Guinea Worm Eradication, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Richard Feachem Dean, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Many major infectious diseases in tropical and developing countries are amenable to control by environmental measures. This book describes these infections and the measures that may be used effectively against them. The infections described include the diarrhoeal diseases, the common gut worms, guinea worm, schistosomiasis, malaria, bancroftian filariasis and other mosquito-borne infections. The environmental interventions that receive most attention are domestic water supplies and improved excreta disposal. Appropriate technology for these interventions, and also their impact on infectious diseases, are documented in detail. The book is intended both for those from an engineering background and those whose training is in medicine or public health. The second edition has been extensively revised to incorporate the lessons learned from the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade (1981-1990). These have included technical advances, particularly regarding composting, the safe re-use of wastes, and low-cost sewerage, but the chief lessons relate to policy and the strategies for implementing water and sanitation programmes. A new chapter on surface water drainage has been added. The references have been brought up to date to cover the extensive recent literature in this field.
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Engineering and infectious disease
Health and water chemistry
Water quality and standards
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aerated lagoons Africa anal cleansing animals Anopheles areas bacteria biogas breeding sites cause cent Chapter chemical chlorine coliforms Community Water Supply composting contain cost Culex pipiens developing countries disease domestic drinking water effluent eggs engineering environmental excreta disposal facultative pond faecal faecal-oral faeces Feachem Figure filariasis flies flow fluoride ground water helminths Hot Climates household hygiene improvement increase infections insecticides irrigation larvae London maintenance malaria Mara maturation ponds methods mg/l mollusciciding mosquitoes nightsoil onchocerciasis oxygen pathogens Photo pipe pit latrine pollution population pour-flush toilet prevent problem pump re-use reduce refuse removal Reproduced by permission residual rural sand sanitation programme schistosome schistosomiasis septic tank sewage sewerage sewers Simulium slow sand filter sludge snail soakaway soil Source species spillway suitable sullage Table transmission transmitted treatment tropical urban usually vector village VIP latrine waste water water levels water quality water-borne World Health Organization worm
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