Genescapes: The Ecology of Genetic Engineering
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are being released into the environment on a massive scale. By the year 2000 there were 44 million hectares of transgenic crops worldwide. Transgenic micro-organisms, trees and fish are also being released into the environment. Has sufficient attention been paid to the environmental costs?This book explains the principles of ecology that provide a framework for assessing the environmental impacts of GMOs and describes the ecological risks associated with a wide variety of transgenic organisms. The cultivation of transgenic crops, for instance, has caused genetic contamination in organic and other non-transgenic crops. Non-target species, agricultural diversity and the rights of small farmers are also coming under threat. Stephen Nottingham argues that much more precaution is required when releasing GMOs into the environment.
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agricultural animals antibiotic-resistance antibiotics areas bacteria bacterium become benefits biodiversity biotechnology Brassica breeding Bt maize Bt toxin canola caterpillars cells cent chemical chloroplasts containing conventional cotton cultivars cultivation developing world diversity ecological risks ecosystem effects environment enzyme example farm-scale evaluations farmers farms fertilize field trials flowers fungi gene construct gene flow genetic contamination genetic engineering genetically modified genetically modified organisms genic genomes glyphosate GMOs Golden Rice growers grown habitats herbicide herbicide-resistant crops honeybees hybrid increased insecticidal insects interactions invasive levels marker genes metres microorganisms Monsanto natural niche non-target non-transgenic occur oilseed rape patent pest pesticides pollen populations potatoes potential precautionary principle produced promoter protein range reduce resistance salmon seed soil soyabean species sprayed sterile sugar beet Syngenta toxic toxin gene trans transgenic crops transgenic fish transgenic maize transgenic oilseed rape transgenic plants transgenic trees unmodified virus viruses vitamin weeds wild relatives wild-type