Hearing in Time: Psychological Aspects of Musical Meter
Our sense that a waltz is "in three" or a blues song is "in four with a shuffle" comes from our sense of musical meter. Hearing in Time explores musical meter from the point of view of cognitive theories of perception and attention. London explores how our ability to follow musical meter is simply a specific instance of our more general ability to synchronize our attention to regularly recurring events in our environment. As such, musical meter is subject to a number of fundamental perceptual and cognitive constraints, which form the cornerstones of London's account. Because listening to music, like many other rhythmic activities, is something that we often do, London views it as a skilled activity for performers and non-performers alike. Hearing in Time approaches musical meter in the context of music as it is actually performed, rather than as a theoretical ideal. Its approach is not based on any particular musical style or cultural practice, so it uses familiar examples from a broad range of music--Beethoven and Bach to Brubeck and Ghanaian drumming. Taking this broad approach brings out a number of fundamental similarities between a variety of different metric phenomena, such as the difference between so-called simple versus complex or additive meters. Because of its accessible style--only a modest ability to read a musical score is presumed--Hearing in Time is for anyone interested in rhythm and meter, including cognitive psychologists, musicologists, musicians, and music theorists.
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1 Meter as a Kind of Attentional Behavior
2 Research on Temporal Perception and its Relevance for Theories of Musical Meter
4 Metric Representations and Metric WellFormedness
6 Metric Flux in Beethovens Fifth
7 NonIsochronous Meters
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anacrusis articulation attentional energy beat cycle beat-classes Beethoven’s behaviors chapter cognitive complex composed constraints dissonance distinct downbeat duple duration durational patterns dynamics example expressive variation gankogui give rise given half-measure hear hemiola hierarchic interpolate intervals involve IOIs isochronous Lerdahl and Jackendoff listener listener’s maximal melody metric accent metric construal metric context metric cycle metric entrainment metric framework metric hierarchy metric levels metric pattern metric well-formedness metrical structure metrical type metrically malleable music theorists musical meter musical surface musicians MWFR N-cycle N-cycle IOIs NI-meters Nketia nodes non-isochronous notation œ j œ œ œ œ œ œn œ œœ œn œ œœ œ œœœ œœœœ passage perception performance periodicities pitch-class polyrhythms possible pulse quarter note Rahn range relationships relative Repp representation rhythm rhythmic figures rhythmic patterns rhythmic surface rotations scale sense shift subcycle taŻla tactus tempo tempo-metrical type thresholds tion tonal two-beat various versus