Images of Organization

Front Cover
Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1998 - Business & Economics - 349 pages
This pioneering work is based on a simple premise with profound implications- All organization and management theories are based on images, or metaphors, with paradoxical effects- they can create profound insights but also great distortions. With this seminal work, Gareth Morgan shows how managers can broaden and deepen their understanding of organization and organizational problems, and use powerful new metaphors to shape new ways of working.
The first book to offer a concrete method for integrating the strengths and overcoming the weaknesses of competing management perspectives, Images of Organization has established itself as a classic and has influenced management thinking throughout the world. This new edition retains all the vitality of the original and has been updated to integrate significant research of the last decade. It has also been abridged and revised to increase its accessibility and usefulness for today's managers. This essential volume provides the kind of organizational "radar" system managers need to negotiate the demands of the 21st century.
 

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Contents

The Promise of Images of Organization
3
The Power of Metaphor in Organization and Management
4
Some Images of Organization
15
Mechanization Takes Command Organizations As Machines
17
Machines Mechanical Thinking and the Rise of Bureaucratic Organization
19
Strengths and Limitations of the Machine Metaphor
31
Nature Intervenes Organizations As Organisms
35
Discovering Organizational Needs
37
Organizations As Systems of Political Activity
152
Strengths and Limitations of the Political Metaphor
174
Exploring Platos Cave Organizations As Psychic Prisons
181
The Trap of Favored Ways of Thinking
183
Organization and the Unconscious
186
Strengths and Limitations of the Psychic Prison Metaphor
206
Unfolding Logics of Change Organization As Flux and Transformation
213
Four Logics of Change
214

Organizations As Open Systems
40
Adapting Organization to Environment
44
The Variety of the Species
50
Promoting Organizational Health and Development
52
The Population Ecology View of Organizations
57
The Creation of Shared Futures
61
Strengths and Limitations of the Organismic Metaphor
63
Learning and SelfOrganization Organizations As Brains
69
Images of the Brain
70
Organizations as Information Processing Brains
73
Creating Learning Organizations
76
SelfOrganization and Regeneration
92
Strengths and Limitations of the Brain Metaphor
107
Creating Social Reality Organizations As Cultures
111
Culture and Organization
112
Creating Organizational Reality
132
Strengths and Limitations of the Culture Metaphor
140
Interests Conflict and Power Organizations As Political Systems
147
Organizations As Systems of Government
149
The Logic of SelfReference
215
The Logic of Chaos and Complexity
222
The Logic of Mutual Causality
234
The Logic of Dialectical Change
242
Strengths and Limitations of the Flux and Transformation Metaphor
254
The Ugly Face Organizations As Instruments of Domination
259
Organization as Domination
261
How Organizations Use and Exploit Their Employees
264
Multinationals and the World Economy
282
Strengths and Limitations of the Domination Metaphor
291
Implications for Practice
295
Reading and Shaping Organizational Life
297
Reading and Emergent Intelligence
314
Using Metaphor to Manage in a Turbulent World
317
Excerpt from Imaginization New Mindsets for Seeing Organizing and Managing
321
Bibliography
327
Index
332
About the Author
348
Copyright

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About the author (1998)

Gareth Morgan is the author of seven books, including Imaginization, and has worked throughout Europe and North America with such companies as Continental AG, GE, Hewlett-Packard, Northern Telecom, Royal Bank of Canada, Shell, and Volkswagen. He is Distinguished Research Professor at the Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto.

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