From the rain forests of Costa Rica to the frozen deserts of Antarctica, lichens are a familiar part of the landscape. Widespread and long-lived, yet vulnerable to environmental disturbance, lichens are useful to scientists in assessing the effects of air pollution, ozone depletion, and metal contamination. Illustrated with more than 150 color photographs, Lichens reveals the varied and intriguing world of organisms that have been used in natural remedies and are becoming key indicators of the earth's environmental health.
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How lichens grow multiply and disperse
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air quality Antarctic areas ascomycetes ascus bark bioindicators bottom British Lichen Caloplaca chemical churchyards Cladonia colonize colour containing cyanobacteria containing green algae copper crustose lichens cyanobacteria different lichen environmental environments example fruiting bodies fungal fungal hyphae fungi fungus genera genus gravestones green algae grey habitats hyphae Identifying lichens important leaf-like Lecanora Lecidea lactea LEFT levels lichen biodiversity lichen communities lichen fungi lichen species lichen substances lichenologists lichens containing lichens grow Lichens occur Lobaria pulmonaria macrolichens medulla metals microscope minerals monitoring mycobiont Natural History Museum nitrogen normally Northern Norway nutrients º º º organisms outer oxalate Parmelia Parmelia lichens partner photosynthesis Physcia pigment pin lichen plants pollution produced quadrat rain forests Ramalina Reindeer moss rocks samples shrubby lichens soredia spores Stephen Sharnoff Sticta structures substrate sulphur dioxide surface Sylvia & Stephen thallus toxic trees Trentepohlia Usnea usnic acid Xanthoria parietina