Lock-in Amplifiers: Principles and Applications
This book deals with the principles of phase-sensitive detection and with the specification and handling characteristics of modern lock-in amplifiers. The material is presented at systems level throughout and covers many practical aspects of signal recovery in research applications.
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Basic concepts in lockin recovery
Lockin amplifier specifications
11 other sections not shown
achieved allowed amplitude appears applied approach assume bandwidth Chapter characteristics circuit components constant conventional corresponding defined depends detection difference discussed drift dynamic range dynamic reserve effect error example experiment factor final fixed fluctuation frequency range full-scale gain give given harmonic heterodyne improvement increased input interest interference introduced less limited linearity lock-in amplifier lock-in systems locking loop low-pass filter magnitude maximum measurement mode modulation noise noise bandwidth noise figure Note obtained operation output overload performance phase phase error phase-locked phase-sensitive detector phase-shift possible practice precision problem quadrature reduced reference channel reference frequency relative resistance response result selection sensitivity shown in Fig signal and reference signal channel signal-to-noise ratio sinewave specification spectrum spurious stability suppression switching synchronous transmission windows usually variations voltage waveform wide zero