## Models and analogies in science |

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accepted anal analogical argument analogy relation argue argument from models Aristotle Aristotle's assert assumptions billiard balls BmCi Campbellian causal relations chance universe characters choice between hypotheses classical physics classification co-occurrence color common containing correlations corresponding deductive system depend described Duhem Duhemist dyadic relation empirical essential ether evidence example explanans explanation explicandum falsifiability genus given hence homologies hypothesis ical identities and differences implies inductive support instances interaction view interpretation justified kind laws literal logical material analogy mathematical Max Black Maxwell's equations meaning metaphor metaphysical negative analogy neutral analogy observation language observation predicates occur P-statements particular pitch possible predictions primary system prior probability probability problem properties of light properties of sound quantum theory reason reference refute regarded rela scientific models scientific theory sense similarity sound waves species sufficient suggested suppose theoretical terms theory of light tion tive univocity vertical relations water waves wave theory word