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The Global Volume and Pattern of Irregular Migration
How Smuggling and Trafficking Work
2 other sections not shown
abuse achieve appear associated asylum attempt Australia become boat border cent Chin China Chinese irregular migration Chinese migrants clearly concern context cooperation cost countries criminal critical demand destination areas developed difficult direct earn economic effective eliminate emerged emigration enter entry estimated Europe European evidence example exploitation extremely facilitate factors flows Fujian Given global groups Hong Kong human illegal immigration important increased involved irregular migration issue labour land late lead leave levels limited majority ment million move movement nature networks North America numbers obtain officials Organization origin overall particular passports perhaps person points population position potential present primarily programmes provinces question reach recent regional reported residents result rise role routes seen significant single smuggling sources South-East Asia specific supply syndicates Taiwan tion trade trafficking transit transportation United West women workers York