Philosophical Problems and Arguments: An Introduction

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Widely used by instructors who emphasize the logical structure of philosophical theories and the dialectical play of argument, this popular work provides clear, reliable, and up-to-date discussions of central philosophical debates. The fourth edition incorporates major revisions--the first since 1982--and features an extensive change in content. Every chapter has been reworked to improve its organization, to make it more accessible and engaging to the student, and to reflect recent discussions.

 

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Contents

The Content and Methods of Philosophy
1
The Tools of the Trade
7
Modality
18
Exercises
24
The Modified Skeptical Argument
50
Summary of the Modified Skeptical Argument
57
A Revisionist
82
Suggestions for Further Reading
88
No Need to Postulate the Supernatural
211
Arbitrary Double Standards and Epistemic Circularity
220
The Argument from Contingency
232
The Argument from Design
239
An A Priori Argument
248
A Pragmatic Justification
256
The Probability Version
262
Conclusion
274

THREE
91
The Libertarian Position
98
The Compatibilist Position
114
The Incompatibilist Position
120
FOUR
139
Three Objections to Dualistic Interactionism
149
No Evidence to Reject Interaction
157
Materialism
163
The TypeType Identity Theory
182
Conclusion about the MindBody Problem
191
FIVE
197
Can the Belief in the Existence
205
Evaluating Actions versus Evaluating People
280
Ethical Relativism
287
Ethical Nihilism
294
Ethical Egoism
300
The Argument from Good Reasons
307
Benthams Indirect Proof of the Principle of Utility
319
Mills Version
324
The Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative
336
Six Requirements for a Satisfactory Ethical Standard
342
Conclusion
348
AUTHOR INDEX
357
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