Phylogenetic Methods and the Prehistory of Languages
Peter Forster, Colin Renfrew
McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2006 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 198 pages
Evolutionary ('phylogenetic') trees were first used to infer lost histories nearly two centuries ago by manuscript scholars reconstructing original texts. Today, computer methods are enabling phylogenetic trees to transform genetics, historical linguistics and even the archaeological study of artefact shapes and styles. But which phylogenetic methods are best suited to retracing the evolution of languages? And which types of language data are most informative about deep prehistory? In this book, leading specialists engage with these key questions. Essential reading for linguists, geneticists, and archaeologists, these studies demonstrate how phylogenetic tools are illuminating previously intractable questions about language prehistory. This innovative volume arose from a conference of linguists, geneticists, and archaeologists held at Cambridge in 2004.
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Rapid Radiation Borrowing and Dialect Continua in the Bantu Languages
Multilateral Comparison and Significance Testing of the IndoUralic Question
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Africa Albanian algorithms Anatolian Archaeological assumptions Bantu languages Bantu trees Bastin Bayesian binary Biology borrowing branch lengths Cambridge Chapter clade cladistics classification coded cognate cognate class cognate sets comparative computational correspondences data set data-cognate dating dialects distribution divergence Dyen East Bantu edge English estimates evidence evolutionary example Figure Forster genetic Germanic glottochronology Gray & Atkinson Greek guages Historical Linguistics Hittite Holden homoplasy Indo-European languages Indo-Iranian inference innovations islands language data language evolution language family lexical evolution lexical replacement lexicostatistics likelihood Malagasy Markov matrix maximum parsimony McDonald Institute McMahon meaning Molecular morphological Mycenaean Neighbor-Net nodes Pagel parameters phonetic phonological characters phylogenetic methods phylogenetic trees phylogeny posterior probability probability problem Proto-Indo-European rates of lexical reconstruction relationships Renfrew reticulations root semantic slot similar split splits graph statistical subgroups Swadesh Swadesh list telic tion Tocharian verbs vocabulary Warnow word lists zone