Predicates and Temporal Arguments
A distinction is made in formal semantics between "stage-level predicates," predicates that describe the general state of a noun, and "individual-level predicates," predicates that specify the specific properties of a noun. Fernald investigates various contexts in which this distinction is traditionally said to come into play. His aim is to show that the effects displayed are not uniform, and that the differences between the analyses proposed in the literature arise from the authors considering different subsets of data that they take to exemplyify the "core" meaning of the stage/individual distinction. Fernald presents alternatives and extensions that shed light on the limitations of previous theories, as well as making original observations about important aspects of the topic, including coercion, and perceptual reports vs. other phenomena.
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adverbial adverbs of quantification Aktionsart allow analysis anaphoric appear argument structure assigned assume assumptions augmented absolutes Carlson cate chapter Chierchia clause complement coda contains a SLP copula deictic denote depictives diagnostic Diesing Diesing's discourse marker discussion donkey embedded clause embedded predicate entail evaluation eventuality evidential coercion examples existential closure existential construction existential interpretation existential possible existential quantifier existential reading free adjuncts full clause grammatical head ILP-based sentences ILP/SLP distinction ILPs and SLPs inchoative individual individual-level intelligent Kratzer LeGuin readings lexical main clause Mapping Hypothesis Mary matrix Milsark modifiers node nuclear scope once-only operator perceptual reports plural subjects plurality condition proposal propositional attitudes quantifier raising Infl raising verbs restriction saw Robin semantic SLP subject effects SLP-based small clause sort of predicate spatiotemporal argument specifier of IP stage-level predicates stative Stump Swart syntactic syntactic category temporal argument tense thematic role theta-role tion type-theoretic distinction ungrammatical variable