Principles of Bacterial Detection: Biosensors, Recognition Receptors and Microsystems

Front Cover
Mohammed Zourob, Sauna Elwary, Anthony P. F. Turner
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 3, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 970 pages
3 Reviews

Principles of Bacterial Detection: Biosensors, Recognition Receptors and Microsystems will cover the up-to-date biosensor technologies used for the detection of bacteria. Written by the world's most renowned and learned scientists each in their own area of expertise, Principles of Bacterial Detection: Biosensors, Recognition Receptors and Microsystems is the first title to cover this expanding research field.

 

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Nice book for Bacteria detection

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Contents

252 Anthrax Smoke Detector
503
3 Validation of Sterilization by Rapid Endospore Viability Assessment
505
32 Measuring Endospore Inactivation using Germinability Assays
508
323 Germination Observed via Loss of Phase Brightness
509
324 Germination Observed via DPA release
510
33 Measuring Endospore Inactivation Using Metabolic Activity Assays
512
4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
513
References
514

4 Conclusions
12
Sample Preparation An Essential Prerequisite for HighQuality Bacteria Detection
15
2 The Sample
16
3 Sampling
17
6 Microbiological Examination of Air
18
7 Sample Handling
20
8 Sample Preparation
21
10 Sample Preparation for Detection of Bacterial Nucleic Acids
23
11 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
27
References
28
Detection of Bacterial Pathogens in Different Matrices Current Practices and Challenges
31
A Historical Perspective
32
5 Techniques Currently Used in Pathogen Detection Methods
33
52 EnzymeLinked Immunoassay
35
53 Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR
36
61 Sampling
37
613 Bulk Sampling
39
64 Selection and Screening
40
651 Morphological Characteristics
41
653 Serological Properties
42
66 Pathogenicity Testing
43
663 Virulence Genes and Gene Expression Products
44
73 Which Traits to Analyze and How Many Tests are Needed for Identifying a Bacterial Pathogen?
45
74 RealTime Detection
46
Overview of Rapid Microbiological Methods
49
Industry Reluctance to Accept These Methods
50
43 Cellular Component or ArtifactBased Technologies
51
52 Adenylate Kinase
52
55 Biosensors and Immunosensors
53
59 Concentric Arcs of Photovoltaic Detectors with Laser Scanning
54
512 Endospore Detection
55
516 Fatty Acid Profiles Fatty Acid Methyl Esters FAMEs
56
519 Impedance
57
522 Limulus Amebocyte Lysate LAL Endotoxin Testing
58
525 MicroElectroMechanical Systems MEMS
59
530 Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR
60
532 Raman Spectroscopy
61
535 Southern BlottingRestriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
62
7 Disclaimer
75
Biosensors
80
Surface Plasmon Resonance SPR Sensors for the Detection of Bacterial Pathogens
83
3 SPR Sensor Instrumentation
85
4 Surface Chemistries and Molecular Recognition Elements
88
5 Detection Formats
90
6 Quantification of Bacteria Cells
91
62 Effect of Bacteria Sample Treatment
92
631 Escherichia coli
93
632 Salmonella spp
97
633 Listeria monocytogenes
98
635 Detection of Multiple Bacteria
99
7 Genetic Markers
101
8 Antibody Biomarkers
103
References
104
Bacterial Detection Using Evanescent WaveBased Fluorescent Biosensors
109
2 Current State of Bacterial Fluorescent TIRF Biosensors
112
221 NRL Array Biosensor
113
2212 Bacterial Detection
114
222 Other Optical Waveguides
115
223 TIRFMicroscopy
116
3 Future Aspects of Bacterial Fluorescent TIRF Biosensors
117
4 Conclusions
119
References
120
Fiber Optic Biosensors for Bacterial Detection
125
11 WholeCell Detection
126
112 Sandwich Immunoassays
127
12 BeadBased Arrays
128
13 Nucleic Acid Sandwich Assays
129
14 Nucleic Acid Direct Hybridization
131
15 Extension Reactions
134
References
135
Integrated DeepProbe Optical Waveguides for Label Free Bacterial Detection
139
11 Planar Optical Waveguides
141
13 Waveguide Modes
143
14 Frustrated Total Internal Reflection Leaky Modes
144
2 DeepProbe Optical Waveguide Sensors with Tunable Evanescent Field
145
21 Waveguide Modes Light Coupling and Sensing Depths of Evanescent Waves
146
211 Light Coupling Techniques
148
22 Waveguide Designs Based on LowIndex Substrates
150
221 Bacteria Detection Using Reverse Symmetry Waveguides
151
23 Waveguide Designs Based on Metal and DyeClad SubstratesLeaky Modes
152
231 Results
156
Detection of Bacteria
157
2313 Immobilization Matrices
159
3 Integrated DeepProbe Optical Waveguides Systems
160
31 Integration with Electric Field
161
32 Integration with Ultrasound Standing Waves USW
163
4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
166
Interferometric Biosensors
169
11 Optical Waveguides
171
12 Planar Waveguide Operation
172
13 Types of Waveguides
175
2 Light Coupling Methods
178
21 Interferometers
180
22 Collinear or Single Channel Interferometers
183
23 TwoChannel Interferometers
186
3 Interferometric Array Sensors
192
4 Surface Plasmon Interferometry
195
5 Other Interferometric Methods and Designs
196
6 Surface Functionalization
197
7 Sample Collection Systems
198
8 Interferometric Applications for WholeCell Detection
199
9 Advantages and Limitations
206
References
208
Luminescence Techniques for the Detection of Bacterial Pathogens
213
1 Beyond Robert Boyles Chicken
214
2 The Bacterial lux Luminescent System for Direct Pathogen Detection
215
3 The Firefly luc Luminescent SystemforDirect PathogenDetection
219
4 The Useof Alternative Luciferases inPathogenDetection
222
7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
225
References
226
Porous and Planar Silicon Sensors
231
A ThreeDimensional Matrix for Biosensing
232
Experiments with GST
233
The First Macroporous Microcavity Structures
235
2 Arrayed Imaging ReflectometryA Planar Silicon Biosensor
236
212 Substrate Design
237
213 Mathematical Model
238
214 Monitoring the Null Reflectance Condition
240
2143 Monochromatic Platform
242
222 Probe Immobilization
244
223 Pathogen Detection
246
2232 Detection by Protein Array
247
3 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
250
References
251
Acoustic Wave TSM Biosensors Weighing Bacteria
255
2 Historical Perspective Theory and Background
256
3 TSM Biosensors
259
31 Detection of Microorganisms
261
32 Measurement in Liquid
263
33 TSM Biosensor Characteristics
264
34 Commercial TSM Microbalances
267
35 Immobilization of Probes onto Sensor Surface
269
351 Physical Adsorption
271
352 Other Coupling Methods
272
354 SolventFree Purified Monolayers
275
355 Immobilization of Monolayers of Phage Coat Proteins
276
3552 Phage Coat Technology
277
3553 Phage Coat Protein Structure
280
356 Immobilization of Molecular Probes onto Porous Substrates
281
4 Problem of Negative Mass
282
5 Coupled Oscillators Model
286
6 Conclusions
290
References
291
Amperometric Biosensors for Pathogenic Bacteria Detection Ilaria Palchetti and Marco Mascini
299
2 Amperometric Biosensors
300
21 Microbial MetabolismBased Biosensors
302
22 Immunosensors
303
23 DNABased Biosensors
306
3 Conclusion and Future Perspectives
310
Microbial Genetic Analysis Based on Field Effect Transistors
313
2 Fundamental Principles of Field Effect Devices
314
22 Principles of Biologically Coupled Field Effect Transistors for Genetic Analysis Genetic FETS
315
3 Fundamentals of Genetic Analysis
317
33 DNA Chip DNA Microarray
318
42 ThiolGold Bonding
320
44 Others
321
5 Genetic Analysis Based on Field Effect Devices
322
512 Immobilization Density of Oligonucleotide Probes
326
52 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms SNPs Analysis
327
521 Controlling Hybridization Temperature for SNPs Analysis
328
522 SNPs Analysis Based on Primer Extension
329
53 DNA Sequencing
331
6 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
335
References
336
ImpedanceBased Biosensors for Pathogen Detection
341
2 Fundamentals of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
342
Plotting
344
221 NonFaradaic Parameters
345
2212 Geometric Capacitance
346
222 Faradaic Parameters
347
2221 ChargeTransfer Resistance
348
2222 Warburg Impedance
349
23 Measuring at Impedimetric Biosensors
350
2312 Tetrapolar Configuration
352
2314 Materials
353
3 Development of an Immunosensor
354
311 Antibodies
355
313 Aptamers
356
32 Surface Modification Methods
357
322 Selfassembled Monolayers
358
323 Silanisation
359
324 Protein A and Protein G
360
326 Chemical Conjugation
361
327 Entrapment
362
34 Signal Amplification
363
35 The Need for Negative Controls
364
Assessing Performance Using ELISA and Microscopy
365
41 Biosensors Based on Interfacial Capacitance Changes
366
42 Biosensors Based on ChargeTransfer Resistance Changes
367
43 Biosensors Based on Conductivity Changes
369
44 Other Approaches
370
References
371
LabelFree Microbial Biosensors Using Molecular Nanowire Transducers
377
12 Target Microorganisms and Matrices
378
122 Salmonella
379
123 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
380
13 Food Safety Applications
381
2 Biosensor Formats
382
23 DNA as Biological Sensing Element
384
24 DNABased Biosensors
385
25 AntibodyBased Biosensors
387
Conducting Polymer
388
261 Polyaniline
390
262 Selfdoped Polyaniline
391
27 Conducting PolymerBased Biosensor for MicrobialViral Detection
392
322 Biosensor Fabrication
393
33 Properties of Pani
394
34 Detection Concept of the Biosensor
398
351 ITOPani Biosensor
399
36 Lateral Flow Conductometric Biosensor
403
371 ITOPani Biosensor
404
4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
406
Magnetic Techniques for Rapid Detection of Pathogens
415
2 Synthesis of Magnetic Particles
417
21 Effect of Particle Size
418
22 Synthesis Techniques
423
231 Methods of Preparing PolymerProtein Coatings
424
2313 Emulsion Diffusion Method
425
232 Examples of PolymerProtein Encapsulated Particles
426
31 Modification of Particle Surface with a Ligand
430
511 Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices
431
512 ABICAP Column
432
52 Indirect Immunoassay Detection Using Magnetic Beads
433
6 Handling Techniques
438
7 Magnetic Separation
439
72 HighField Electromagnets
440
73 Permanent Magnets
441
74 Numerical Analysis for Permanent Magnet Arrangements
442
8 Giant Magnetoresistive GMR Devices for Bacterial Detection
446
9 Bacteria Detection with Magnetic Relaxation Signal
448
10 Magnetoelastic Sensors for Bacterial Detection
449
101 E coli Detection
450
11 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
453
References
454
Cantilever Sensors for Pathogen Detection
459
2 MillimeterSized Cantilever Sensors
460
3 Reported Work on Detecting Cells Using Cantilever Sensors
461
4 Physics of Cantilever Sensors
463
5 Resonance Modes
466
6 Characterization of PEMC Sensors
468
8 Antibody Immobilization Methods
469
9 Detection in Batch and Stagnant Samples
470
10 Detection in Flowing Samples
473
11 Selectivity of Detection
475
12 Conclusions
477
References
478
Detection and Viability Assessment of EndosporeForming Pathogens
481
12 Endospore Dormancy Resistance and Longevity
482
13 Endospores as Biodosimeters for Evaluating Sterilization Regimes
484
14 EndosporeForming Pathogens
485
15 Bioweapons Bioinsecticides and Probiotics
487
2 Detection of EndosporeForming Pathogens and their Endospores
489
211 Phenotypic Identification of Bacillus anthracis
490
22 Parameters of a Sensor
491
23 Rapid Immunoassays
492
232 LateralFlow Immunoassays
493
234 Flow Cytometry
494
24 Rapid Nucleic Acid Assays
495
242 The PCR Reaction
496
244 Rapid PCR Detection Methods High Throughput and realtime PCR
497
245 Field Implementation of Rapid PCR for Analysis of Environmental Samples
498
246 Monitoring the Air for Bacillus anthracis Endospores by PCR
500
25 Rapid Detection of Endospores via Dipicolinic Acid Biomarker
501
LabelFree Fingerprinting of Pathogens by Raman Spectroscopy Techniques
525
2 Raman Microscopy for WholeOrganism Fingerprinting
527
3 SurfaceEnhanced Raman Scattering SERS for WholeOrganism Fingerprinting
531
4 MicroSERS for the Detection and Identification of Pathogens and Toxins
534
41 MicroSERS Detection of Bacteria
535
412 Impact of Growth Conditions on Bacterial Fingerprints
536
413 Viable vs Nonviable Bacteria
539
414 Integrated MicroSERS Detection and Identification of Bacteria
542
415 Impact of Growth Conditions on Biomolecule Capture
544
42 MicroSERS Detection of Spores
545
422 Impact of Growth Conditions on Spore Fingerprints
547
423 Viable vs Nonviable Spores
550
424 Integrated MicroSERS Detection and Identification of Spores
551
43 MicroSERS Detection of Bacterial Toxins
554
431 SERS Fingerprinting of Toxins
555
432 Analysis of Toxins in Complex Samples
558
5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives
559
References
560
Recognition Receptors
565
Antibodies and Immunoassays for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens
567
2 Antibodies
568
21 Polyclonal Antibody
570
23 Use of Synthetic Peptides for Antibody Production
571
24 Recombinant DNA Technology
573
3 Capture and Concentration of Cells by Immunomagnetic Separation
575
31 Automated IMS Systems
577
421 Escherichia coli
580
422 Listeria monocytogenes
583
425 Clostridium botulinum Toxins
584
44 Other Immunoassays
585
444 Chemiluminescent Immunoassay
586
45 Optical Biosensors
587
453 AntibodyBased Microfluidic Sensors
588
454 Serodiagnosis
589
5 Recent Developments in Immunoassays
590
52 Mass Spectrometric Immunodetection
591
62 Effect of Physical and Chemical Stresses on the Expression Profile of Antigens in Bacteria
592
622 Effect of Stress on the Expression of Proteins in Bacteria
593
7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
594
References
595
Rapid Nucleic AcidBased Diagnostics Methods for the Detection of Bacterial Pathogens
603
11 Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria from Clinical Samples
604
13 Profiling of Multidrug Resistance
606
22 Benefits and Limitations of Conventional Methods
607
32 Requirements for a NADBased Food Assay
608
34 Application of PCRBased Tests to Pathogen Detection in Food Samples
609
35 Use of RNA as an Alternative Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Target
610
36 Sample Preparation for NAD from Clinical Sample Types
611
4 Formats of NAD Assays for Food Pathogen Detection
612
43 Specific Examples of Nucleic Acid Diagnostics Assays for the Detection of Bacterial FoodBorne Pathogens
613
431 Commercially Available Conventional NAD Assays for FoodBorne Bacterial Pathogens
614
432 Alternative In Vitro Amplification Technologies
615
44 Standardisation of In Vitro AmplificationBased NAD Assays and InterLaboratory Validation Studies
616
45 RealTime In Vitro AmplificationBased Nucleic Acid Diagnostics
617
452 Alternative RealTime In Vitro AmplificationBased Diagnostics Technologies
618
46 Limitations and Other Considerations for In Vitro Amplification NAD Tests
619
47 NonAmplified Direct DNA ProbeBased Nucleic Acid Diagnostics
620
5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
621
512 Microarrays
622
References
623
Oligonucleotide and DNA Microarrays Versatile Tools for Rapid Bacterial Diagnostics
629
2 Microarray Technology
630
3 Technical Aspects of Microarray Technology
632
3131 Long Oligonucleotides
633
32 Substrates for Printing
634
322 Slides with Amino Silane Coating
635
325 Proprietary Surface Chemistries
636
33 Targets for Microarray Analysis
637
332 Labeling of the Targets
638
34 Classical CommerciallyAvailable Microarray Formats
639
3422 NimbleGen
640
35 Alternative Methods for Improving MicroarrayBased Detection Sensitivity
641
354 ThreeDimensional Microarray Formats
642
36 Marker Genes Used on Microbial Diagnostic Microarrays MDMs
643
5 Applications of Microarray Technology in Microbial Diagnostics
644
52 Comparative Genome Hybridizations CGH
645
53 Generic or Universal Microarrays
646
54 Microarrays for Sequence Analysis
647
55 Microbial Diagnostic Microarrays
648
6 Conclusions
649
Pathogenic Bacterial Sensors Based on Carbohydrates as Sensing Elements Haiying Liu
659
1 Introduction
660
2 Bacterial Surface Lectins
661
3 Surface Carbohydrate Structures of Pathogenic Bacteria
664
4 Carbohydrate Microarrays for Detection of Bacteria
668
5 Lectin Microarrays for Detection of Bacteria
670
6 Conjugated Fluorescent Glycopolymers for Detection of Bacteria
672
7 Glyconanoparticles for Detection of Bacteria
676
8 CarbohydrateFunctionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Detection of Bacteria
678
9 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
680
References
681
Aptamers and Their Potential as Recognition Elements for the Detection of Bacteria Casey C Fowler Naveen K Navani Eric D Brown and Yingfu Li ...
689
11 Properties of Nucleic Acids
690
12 Synthesizing Sequencing and Modifying Nucleic Acids
692
123 Reverse Transcription
693
21 Introduction to SELEX
694
221 Bead and Column Based Selections
696
223 Capillary Electrophoresis CE Based Selections
697
31 The Growing Aptamer Catalogue
698
33 AptamerLigand Interactions
700
4 Applications of Aptamers
701
42 Aptamers with Therapeutic Potential
702
431 ConformationDependent Fluorescent Sensors
703
433 Target Detection by Fluorescence Anisotropy
704
434 Enzyme Linked Aptamer Assays
705
436 Electrochemical Sensors
706
51 Categories of Microbial Agents to be Detected
707
512 GramNegative Bacteria
708
53 Aptamers in Pathogen Detection
709
6 Conclusions
710
Protein Microarray Technologies for Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Protein Analytes
715
11 Definition and Classification of Protein Microarrays
716
13 Affinity Protein Microarrays
719
14 Alternative Microarray Setups
720
2 Detection of Bacteria and Bacterial Protein Analytes
721
23 Detection of Multiple Toxins
722
24 Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Bacterial Proteins and Bacteria
723
3 Detection of Diagnostic Markers Toxin Regulators and Associated Protein Expression Profiles
724
33 Identification of Potential Toxin ModulatorsRegulators
725
34 Screening of Protein Expression Signatures Associated with Bacterial Infection
726
Bacteriophage Powerful Tools for the Detection of Bacterial Pathogens
731
2 Detection by Phage Amplification
732
3 Detection Through PhageMediated Cell Lysis
734
31 Measurement of ATP Release
735
32 Detection of Other Cytoplasmic Markers
736
33 Measurement of Impedance
737
4 Detection Through Cell Wall Recognition Phage Adsorption and DNA Injection
738
43 Fluorescently Labeled Phage
740
5 Detection by Reporter Phage
741
51 Luciferase Reporter Phage LRP
743
52 Fluorescent Protein Reporter Phage
745
53 Other Reporter Phages
746
6 Other Detection Methods Using Phage
747
62 Dual Phage Technology
749
7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
750
Phage Display Methods for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens
755
1 Introduction
756
13 Nucleic AcidBased Tools
758
3 Phage Display
759
31 Phage M13
760
33 Phages Versus Phagemids
762
34 Phage Display Formats
764
35 The Phages Themselves Are Not the Ultimate Tool
767
4 Review of Literature on Phage Display Against Bacterial Pathogens
769
41 Random Peptide Phage Display
770
42 scFv Libraries
772
43 Single Domain Antibodies sdAbs and Domain Antibodies dAbs
775
51 Panning Methods
776
52 Screening Methods
777
6 New Directions
778
614 Trinectins
779
623 mRNA Display
780
Molecular Imprinted Polymers for Biorecognition of Bioagents
785
2 Principles of Molecular Imprinting
786
21 Imprinting Considerations
787
212 Template Molecule
788
214 CrossLinking
789
215 Polymerization
790
22 Aqueous Phase MIP
791
221 Hydrogels
792
222 MIP Within Hydrogels
793
3 Solid Phase Extraction Based on MIPs for Concentrating Bioagents
795
32 Mycotoxins
798
33 NanoSized Structures
799
34 Peptides and Proteins
800
35 Viruses
801
36 Bacterial Cells and Endospores
802
4 Biosensors Based on MIPs
803
41 MIPbased Sensors for Detection of Amino Acids
804
42 MolecularImprinted Films for Toxins
805
43 Microbial Imprinted Polymers
806
5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
808
References
809
Microsystems
815
MicrofluidicsBased Lysis of Bacteria and Spores for Detection and Analysis
817
2 Bench Scale Methods for BacteriaSpore Lysis
818
3 BacteriaSpore Lysis Based on Microfluidic Systems
820
32 Chemical Lysis
821
33 Thermal Lysis
823
34 LaserBased Lysis
826
35 Electrical Lysis
827
4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
829
Detection of Pathogens by OnChip PCR
833
21 History of Miniaturized Total Analysis System uTAS
834
3 DNA Amplification
835
32 PCR Characteristics and Applications
836
33 Components to Perform PCR
837
34 PCR Process
838
35 Conventional PCR
839
Apparatus and Detection Techniques
840
37 OnChip PCR
841
371 CapillaryBased Thermocyclers
842
372 MicrodeviceBased Thermocyclers
843
374 DynamicSample Systems
844
4 Minireview
846
5 Conclusions
848
References
849
Micro and Nanopatterning for Bacteria and VirusBased Biosensing Applications
855
2 Fundamentals of Bacterial and Viral Surface Interactions
857
3 Technologies for Patterning
858
33 Micromolding Soft Lithography
859
333 Microtransfer Molding
860
34 Scanning Probe Lithography
861
4 Biosensing Applications and Examples
862
42 Healthcare Applications
864
43 Detection of Toxins in the Environment
865
44 Real Devices and Challenges
866
References
867
Microfabricated Flow Cytometers for Bacterial Detection
869
11 BioMEMS
871
12 Review of Microfabrication Techniques
872
124 PolymerBased Micromachining Techniques for Microfluidic Devices
873
2 Operation Principles
874
21 Cell Transportation and Focusing
875
212 Pneumatic Approach
878
213 Electrokinetic Approach
879
22 Cell Detection
880
221 Optical Waveguide Approach
881
222 Buried Optical Fiber Approach
882
23 Cell Sorting
883
232 Pneumatic Sorting
884
233 Electrokinetic Sorting
885
31 Environmental Monitoring
886
32 Rapid Assessment of Bacterial Viability
888
34 Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing
889
References
890
Bacterial Concentration Separation and Analysis by Dielectrophoresis
895
2 Theory
897
3 Applications of Electrokinetics to Bacteria
901
4 Toward an Integrated Detection System
904
5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
905
References
906
Ultrasonic Microsystems for Bacterial Cell Manipulation
909
11 Ultrasound and Bacterial Cells
910
22 Lateral and Secondary Radiation Forces
912
23 Acoustic Streaming
913
24 Cavitation
914
312 Mechanical Effects
915
313 Construction
916
32 Filtration and Fractionation of Cells
917
3211 Sedimentation
918
3213 Filtration Using Ultrasound Within a Porous Mesh
919
3214 Cell Washing
920
323 Trapping of Cells
921
33 Biosensor Enhancement by Forcing Cells to a Surface
922
4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
924
Recent Advances in RealTime Mass Spectrometry Detection of Bacteria
929
12 Scope
930
132 Mass Spectrometry of Bacteria
931
1322 LDI MS
932
1324 Comparison of MS Methods for Whole Cell Bacteria Typing
935
14 Aerosol MS
936
1412 LDI MS
937
1413 MALDI MS
938
2 Current State of the Technology
939
22 Deposition and PyMS Based Technology
940
23 Deposition and MALDI MS Based Technology
941
25 Single Particle MALDI MS Technology
943
3 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
946
References
947
Index
955
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