Semiconductor Lasers: Stability, Instability and Chaos

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Springer, Oct 24, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 475 pages
3 Reviews
Prefaceforthesecondedition Chaos research in laser physics, especially in semiconductor lasers, has - veloped further even after completion of the ?rst edition of this book in the late summer of 2004, and it is still growing rapidly. For example, various forms of chaotic dynamics have been applied in newly developed semic- ductor lasers,such as in vertical-cavitysurface-emitting semiconductor lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers. Chaotic dynamics plays an important role in these new lasers, even for their solitary oscillations, and control of the dynamics is currently an important issue for practical applications. - other signi?cant advance has been made in the area of chaotic optical secure communications. Chaotic secure communications using existing public opt- al communications links have been tested, and successful results have been obtained. In this second edition, I have ?lled in the gaps in the explanation of chaotic laser dynamics in the previous edition, and I have also added s- eral important topics that have been developed recently. In particular, a new chapter on laser stabilizations has been added, and a number of misprints in the ?rst edition have been corrected. I believe this book will be of interest not only to researchers in the ?eld of laser chaos, but also to those working in nonlinear science and technology. Hamamatsu, Spring 2007 Junji Ohtsubo Preface Theaimofthisbookisthedescriptionofthestateoftheartofchaosresearch in semiconductor lasers and their applications, and the future perspective of this ?eld.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
12 Historical Perspectives of Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers
3
13 Outline of This Book
6
2 Chaos in Laser Systems
11
212 Light Emission and Absorption in TwoLevel Atoms
13
213 MaxwellBloch Equations
14
22 LorenzHaken Equations 221 LorenzHaken Equations
15
222 First Laser Threshold
16
813 Dynamics of Multimode Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback
217
821 Theory of SelfPulsating Lasers
220
822 Instabilities at Solitary Oscillations
223
823 Instability and Chaos by Optical Feedback
227
824 Instability and Chaos by Injection Current Modulation
230
831 Theoretical Model of VerticalCavity SurfaceEmitting Lasers
232
832 SpinFlip Model
235
833 Characteristics of VCSELs in Solitary Oscillations
239

223 Second Laser Threshold
18
231 Classes of Lasers
20
233 Class B Lasers
23
234 Class A Lasers
24
3 Semiconductor Lasers and Theory
25
321 Laser Oscillation Conditions
26
322 Laser Oscillation Frequency
28
323 Dependence of Oscillation Frequency on Carrier Density
29
332 Rate Equation for the Field
30
333 Linewidth Enhancement Factor
32
334 Laser Rate Equations
33
341 Linear Stability Analysis
37
342 Relaxation Oscillation
38
351 Rate Equations Including Langevin Noises
40
352 Langevin Noises
41
353 Noise Spectrum
43
355 Phase Noise and Spectral Linewidth
44
361 Injection Current Modulation
47
362 Intensity Modulation Characteristics
48
363 Phase Modulation Characteristics
50
371 Index and GainGuided Structures
51
372 Waveguide Models
53
373 Spatial Modes of Gain and IndexGuided Lasers
54
374 Effects of Spontaneous Emission in Gain and IndexGuided Lasers
56
375 Laser Types
58
4 Theory of Optical Feedback in Semiconductor Lasers
63
412 Theoretical Model
66
421 Linear Stability Analysis
68
422 Linear Mode and Stability and Instability in Semiconductor Lasers
73
423 Gain Reduction Due to Optical Feedback
75
424 Linewidth in the Presence of Optical Feedback
76
43 Feedback from a Grating Mirror
77
44 PhaseConjugate Feedback
79
451 Incoherent Feedback
82
452 PolarizationRotated Optical Feedback
83
46 Filtered Feedback
85
511 Optical Feedback Effects
87
512 Potential Model in Feedback Induced Instability
88
513 Optical Spectrum in Stable and Unstable Feedback Regimes
90
514 Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback
93
515 Chaotic Bifurcations
95
516 Dynamics for Injection Current Variations
96
521 Periodic Stability Enhancement for Variations of the External Cavity Length
101
522 Origin of Periodic Stability Enhancement
103
523 Effects of Linewidth Enhancement Factor
105
524 Sensitivity of the Optical Phase
107
525 Chaotic Dynamics for a Small Change of the External Cavity Length
109
53 LowFrequency Fluctuations LFFs 531 LowFrequency Fluctuation Phenomena
112
532 LFF Characteristics
115
533 Origin of LFFs
117
541 Stable and Unstable Conditions in Short External Cavity
120
542 Regular Pulse Package Oscillations in Short External Cavity
122
543 Bifurcations of Regular Pulse Package
124
55 Dynamics in Semiconductor Lasers with Grating Mirror Feedback
126
561 Linear Stability Analysis
129
562 Dynamics Induced by PhaseConjugate Feedback
131
563 Dynamics in the Presence of Frequency Detuning
132
134 5 Dynamics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback
134
572 Dynamics of PolarizationRotated Optical Feedback
138
581 Filtered Optical Feedback
140
582 External Cavity Modes
142
583 Frequency Oscillations and Chaotic Dynamics
144
6 Dynamics in Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Injection
147
612 Injection Locking Condition
150
621 Rate Equations
152
622 Chaotic Bifurcations by Optical Injection
153
623 Chaos Map in the Phase Space of Frequency Detuning and Injection
157
624 Coexistence of Chaotic Attractors in Optically Injected Semiconductor Lasers
161
by Strong Optical Injection 631 Enhancement of Modulation Bandwidth by Strong Optical Injection
164
632 Origin of Modulation Bandwidth Enhancement
168
633 Modulation Response by Strong Optical Injection
170
634 Suppression of Frequency Chirping by Strong Optical Injection
172
635 Generation of High Frequency Chaotic Oscillation by Strong Optical Injection
174
7 Dynamics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optoelectronic Feedback and Modulation
177
712 Pulsation Oscillations in Optoelectronic Feedback Systems
179
721 Linear Stability Analysis
182
722 Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optoelectronic Feedback
185
731 Chaotic Dynamics in Negative Optoelectronic Feedback
187
732 Chaotic Dynamics in Positive Optoelectronic Feedback
189
741 System of Optoelectronic Feedback with Wavelength Filter
193
742 Dynamics of Optoelectronic Feedback with Wavelength Filter
195
751 Instabilities of a Modulated Semiconductor Laser
198
752 Linear Stability Analysis
200
753 Chaotic Dynamics in Modulated Semiconductor Lasers
204
761 Optically Injected Semiconductor Laser Subject to Optoelectronic Feedback
206
with Optical Feedback and Modulation
209
in Various Laser Structures
212
812 Theoretical Model of Multimode Lasers
214
834 SpatioTemporal Dynamics in VCSELs
242
835 Feedback Effects in VCSELs
245
836 Short Optical Feedback in VCSELs
250
837 Orthogonal Optical Injection Dynamics in VCSEL
252
841 Theoretical Model of Broad Area Lasers
255
842 Dynamics of Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers at Solitary Oscillations
258
843 Feedback Effects in Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers
264
85 Laser Arrays
266
9 Chaos Control and Applications
269
912 Continuous Control Method
270
913 Occasional Proportional Method
271
914 Sinusoidal Modulation Method
272
921 Continuous Control
273
922 Occasional Proportional Feedback Control
275
923 Sinusoidal Modulation Control
276
924 Optical Control
279
931 Noise Suppression by Sinusoidal Modulation
282
932 Stability and Instability of LFFs by Injection Current Modulation
286
933 Chaos Targeting
288
10 Stabilization of Semiconductor Lasers
291
1012 Linewidth Narrowing by Grating Feedback
294
by PhaseConjugate Optical Feedback
295
1014 Linewidth Narrowing by Resonant Optical Feedback
299
102 Linewidth Narrowing by Optoelectronic Feedback
301
1031 Noise Suppression in SelfPulsation Semiconductor Laser
304
1032 Stabilization of VCSELs
305
1033 Stabilization of BroadArea Semiconductor Lasers
308
1034 Stabilization of Laser Arrays
312
104 Controls in Nobel Structure Lasers 1041 Photonic VCSELs
313
1042 QuantumDot BroadArea Semiconductor Lasers
315
11 Stability and Bistability in Feedback Interferometers and Their Applications
318
1112 Interferometric Measurement in SelfMixing Semiconductor Lasers
323
1121 Displacement and Vibration Measurement
325
1122 Velocity Measurement
328
1123 Absolute Position Measurement
329
1124 Angle Measurement
330
1125 Measurement of Linewidth and Linewidth Enhancement Factor
332
1131 Stability and Bistability in Active Feedback Interferometer
334
1132 Chaos Control in Active Feedback Interferometers
338
12 Chaos Synchronization in Semiconductor Lasers
341
1212 Generalized and Complete Chaos Synchronization
344
in Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback 1221 Model of Synchronization Systems
347
1222 Rate Equations in Unidirectional Coupling Systems
349
1223 Generalized Chaos Synchronization
350
1224 Complete Chaos Synchronization
351
1231 Chaos Synchronization Numerical Examples
353
1232 Chaos Synchronization Experimental Examples
357
1233 Anticipating Chaos Synchronization
359
1234 Bandwidth Enhanced Chaos Synchronization
360
1235 Incoherent Synchronization Systems
362
1236 Polarization Rotated Chaos Synchronization
364
1241 Theory of Chaos Synchronization in Injected Lasers
367
1242 Examples of Chaos Synchronization in Injected Lasers
369
in Optoelectronic Feedback Systems 1251 Theory of Chaos Synchronization in Optoelectronic Feedback Systems
370
1252 Examples of Chaos Synchronization in Optoelectronic Feedback Systems
372
in Injection Current Modulated Systems
373
1271 Chaos Synchronization of Semiconductor Lasers with Mutual Optical Coupling
374
1272 Chaos Synchronization of Semiconductor Lasers with Mutual Optoelectronic Coupling
375
13 Chaotic Communications in Semiconductor Lasers
379
1312 Chaos Masking
381
1313 Chaos Modulation
383
1315 Chaotic Data Communications in Laser Systems
384
1321 Chaotic Communications in Optical Feedback Systems
385
1322 Chaos Masking in Optical Feedback Systems
388
1323 Chaos Modulation in Optical Feedback Systems
393
1324 Chaos Shift Keying in Optical Feedback Systems
394
in Incoherent Optical Feedback Systems
396
133 Cryptographic Applications in Optical Injection Systems
399
134 Cryptographic Applications in Optoelectonic Systems
401
135 Performance of Chaotic Communications
404
136 Security of Chaotic Communications
408
137 Chaotic Carrier and Bandwidth of Communications
410
1381 Chaos Masking Video Signal Transmissions
412
1382 Chaotic Signal Transmissions through Public Data Link
414
Chaos
419
A11 Discrete Systems
420
A12 Continuous Systems
422
A13 Delay Differential Systems
424
A21 Phase Space Attractor and Poincare map
425
A22 Steady State Behaviors
427
A23 Fractal Dimension and Correlation Dimension
430
A24 Lyapunov Exponent
431
A3 Chaos Control
432
A4 Chaos Synchronization
437
References
440
Index
469
Copyright

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Page 1 - But it is not always so; it may happen that small differences in the initial conditions produce very great ones in the final phenomena. A small error in the former will produce an enormous error in the latter. Prediction becomes impossible, and we have the fortuitous phenomenon.
Page iii - ... reference books. The editors encourage prospective authors to correspond with them in advance of submitting a manuscript. Submission of manuscripts should be made to the Editor-in-Chief or one of the Editors.
Page iii - Editor-in-Chief William T. Rhodes Georgia Institute of Technology School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Atlanta, GA 30332-0250, USA E-mail...

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