The History of Bethlem

Front Cover
Bethlem Hospital, popularly known as "Bedlam", is a unique institution. Now seven hundred and fifty years old, it has been continuously involved in the care of the mentally ill in London since at least the 1400s. As such it has a strong claim to be the oldest foundation in Europe with an unbroken history of sheltering and treating the mentally disturbed. During this time, Bethlem has transcended locality to become not only a national and international institution, but in many ways, a cultural and literary myth.
The History of Bethlem is a scholarly history of this key establishment by distinguished authors, including Asa Briggs and Roy Porter. Based upon extensive research of the hospital's archives, the book looks at Bethlem's role within the caring institutions of London and Britain, and provides a long overdue re-evaluation of its place in the history of psychiatry.
 

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Contents

12471633
1
Background
11
The foundation of the Priory of St Mary of Bethlehem
21
17831900
23
The development of the Bethlem precinct
36
Politics and patronage 3 3
55
Bethlems income
68
changing roles and personnel
80
Bethlem and reform
436
Investigation
464
Classifying and consoling
484
A Victorian institution 312
512
1900 to the present
533
Bethlem and the twentieth century 333
535
Bethlems move to Monks Orchard 343
543
the merger of Bethlem and the Maudsley 167
567

Medieval attitudes towards and treatment of the insane
94
Institutional care for the insane in medieval and early modern times
111
Images of Bedlam
130
Background
145
the administration and finance of Bethlem 136
156
Visiting
178
environment management and architecture
200
The architecture of Bethlem at Moorfields
230
Medicine medical officers and therapeutics
260
inferior officers and servants
288
Admission and discharge
315
The politics of committal to early modern Bethlem
348
Bethlem charity and the first history of the Hospital
365
Fact and fancy
381
Bethlems move to Southwark
397
Bethlem and the 1813 Select Committee
413
administration and finance 190182 388
588
medical and nursing staff 190182
618
the character of admissions in the twentieth century
649
patients and the treatment of mental illness in twentiethcentury Bethlem
676
From SHA to NHS trust 198294
711
Conclusion
719
Appendices
721
Masters wardens or keepers of Bethlem 12471633
723
Bethlem and Bridewell presidents 16061793
726
Bethlem and Bridewell physicians 16191816
727
Bethlem and Bridewell surgeons 16291813
728
Bethlem medical officers 17831900
729
Twentiethcentury Bethlem officers
731
Name index
733
Suhfect index
741
Copyright

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About the author (1997)

Asa Briggs was born in Keighley, England on May 7, 1921. He received a BA in history and a BSc in economics from Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge in 1941. During World War II, he worked at Bletchley Park, the Buckinghamshire country house devoted to cracking German wartime codes. He taught at several universities including the London School of Economics; Worcester College, Oxford; Leeds University; the University of Sussex; and Open University. He wrote several non-fiction works including The Age of Improvement, Victorian People, Victorian Cities, Victorian Things, and a five-volume history of British broadcasting. His last two books were the autobiographies entitled Secret Days and Special Relationships. He died on March 15, 2016 at the age of 94.

Roy Sydney Porter was born December 31, 1946. He grew up in a south London working class home. He attended Wilson's Grammar School, Camberwell, and won an unheard of scholarship to Cambridge. His starred double first in history at Cambridge University (1968) led to a junior research fellowship at his college, Christ's, followed by a teaching post at Churchill College, Cambridge. His Ph.D. thesis, published as The Making Of Geology (1977), became the first of more than 100 books that he wrote or edited. Porter was a Fellow and Director of Studies in History at Churchill College, Cambridge from 1972 to 1979; Dean from 1977 to 1979; Assistant Lecturer in European History at Cambridge University from 1974 to 1977, Lecturer from 1977 to 1979. He joined the Wellcome Institute fot the History of Medicine in 1979 where he was a Senior Lecturer from 1979 to 1991, a Reader from 1991 to 1993, and finally a Professor in the Social History of Medicine from 1993 to 2001. Porter was Elected a fellow of the British Academy in 1994, and he was also made an honorary fellow by both the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Roy Porter died March 4, 2002, at the age of 55.

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