The Principles of Scientific Management
It seems, at first glance, like an obvious step to take to improve industrial productivity: one should simply watch workers at work in order to learn how they actually do their jobs. But American engineer FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR (1856-1915) broke new ground with this 1919 essay, in which he applied the rigors of scientific observation to such labor as shoveling and bricklayer in order to streamline their work... and bring a sense of logic and practicality to the management of that work. This highly influential book, must-reading for anyone seeking to understand modern management practices, puts lie to such misconceptions that making industrial processes more efficient increases unemployment and that shorter workdays decrease productivity. And it laid the foundations for the discipline of management to be studied, taught, and applied with methodical precision.
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47 tons agement average balls Bethlehem Steel Company better brick bricklayer bricklaying chilled iron cooperation cutting metals cutting speed developed earn efficiency elementary elements employers employes establishment fact first-class foot-pounds fore foreman functional foremen gang Gilbreth girls given hand handling pig iron high-priced higher wages illustrations implements increase individual initiative and incentive interest kind knowledge lathe laws long tons machine machine-shop machinist management of initiative mechanic arts ment methods Midvale Steel Company mortar motion study motions old type ordinary types output paper personal coefficient philosophy piece pig-iron handler pile possible practically principles of scientific problem proper day's proper speed quickest receive records rule-of-thumb Sanford E science of cutting scientific management scientific selection series of experiments slide-rules standard task management teachers teaching thumb tion tool trade type of management whole William Sellers workman writer
Page 3 - Underworking, that is, deliberately working slowly so as to avoid doing a full day's work, "soldiering," as it is called in this country, "hanging it out," as it is called in England, "ca canae," as it is called in Scotland, is almost universal in industrial establishments, and prevails also to a large extent in the building trades; and the writer asserts without fear of contradiction that this constitutes the greatest evil with which the workingpeople of both England and America are now afflicted....
Page 6 - take it easy" is greatly increased by bringing a number of men together on similar work and at a uniform standard rate of pay by the day. Under this plan the better men gradually but surely slow down their gait to that of the poorest and least efficient. When a naturally energetic man works for a few days beside a lazy one, the logic of the situation is unanswerable. "Why should I work hard when that lazy fellow gets the same pay that I do and does only half as much...
Page 3 - ... paying from 30 per cent to 100 per cent higher wages to their men than are paid to similar men immediately around them, and with whose employers they are in competition. These illustrations will cover different types of work, from the most elementary to the most complicated. If the above reasoning is correct, it follows that the most important object of both the workmen and the management should be the training and development of each individual in the establishment, so that he can do (at his...