The Rise of "the Rest": Challenges to the West from Late-industrializing Economies
After World War II a select number of countries outside Japan and the West--those that Alice Amsden calls "the rest"--gained market share in modern industries and altered global competition. By 2000, a great divide had developed within "the rest", the lines drawn according to prewar manufacturing experience and equality in income distribution. China, India, Korea and Taiwan had built their own national manufacturing enterprises that were investing heavily in R&D. Their developmental states had transformed themselves into champions of science and technology. By contrast, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico had experienced a wave of acquisitions and mergers that left even more of their leading enterprises controlled by multinational firms. The developmental states of Mexico and Turkey had become hand-tied by membership in NAFTA and the European Union. Which model of late industrialization will prevail, the "independent" or the "integrationist," is a question that challenges the twenty-first century.
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afﬁliate American Amsden Argentina Asia assets automobile average beneﬁts BNDES Brazil Brazilian business groups Cambridge capital century chaebol chapter chemicals Chile China Chinese companies competition costs cotton textile countries deﬁcit deﬁned Development Bank developmental difﬁcult diversiﬁed Economic Development efﬁcient electronics engineering enterprises equipment export ﬁgure ﬁnance ﬁnancial ﬁrst foreign ﬁrms foreign investment global growth import substitution income India Indonesia inﬂuence innovation International japan japanese joint ventures Korea Development Bank labor latecomers Latin America loans machinery Malaysia manufacturing experience manufacturing output Mexico mills modern multinational national ﬁrms national leaders Nonmineral North Atlantic Ottoman Ottoman Empire percent performance standards petrochemical petroleum postwar prewar prod production proﬁtable proﬁts promotion rest rest’s sector share silk skills Sources speciﬁc steel Taiwan tariffs technology transfer textile industry Thailand trade Turkey UNCTAD United University Press USIMINAS World Bank World War II yarn