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A Problem of
Americas Underground Economy
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adjustment amount analysis approach assumed average black economy black market capital cash clandestine employment Colombia compensation of employees countries currency holdings currency ratio demand deposits demand for currency deposit ratio earnings economic activity employees equations estimates example factors Feige figure foreign exchange gross national product growth Gutmann hidden economy hidden labor market household important increase industrial Internal Revenue Service irregular economy irregular sector Italy labor force lavoro macroeconomic marginal measure method million monetary national accounts national income notes official overinvoicing payments percent of GNP percentage period personal income Radio Liberty ratio of currency reported residual sample second economy self-employed sources Soviet statistics Subterranean Economy Tanzi tax authorities tax evasion tax rates taxation taxpayers tion transactions underground activity underground economy underreporting United Kingdom unregistered unreported income USSR variable velocity workers