Wire Bonding in Microelectronics

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McGraw Hill Professional, Jun 5, 2009 - Technology & Engineering - 336 pages
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The Industry Standard Guide to Wire Bonding--Fully Updated

The definitive resource on the critical process of connecting semiconductors with their packages, Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more.


  • Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems
  • Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire
  • Wire bond testing
  • Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions
  • Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems
  • Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability
  • Mechanical problems in wire bonding
  • High-yield, fifine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extremetemperature wire bonds
  • Copper, low-dielectric-constant (Cu/Lo-k) technology and problems
  • Wire bonding process modeling and simulation
CD includes all the book's full-color figures plus animations

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The gold plating section, 6A.5 Gold Plating Standards, is incorrect. In Table 6A-1, under ASTM B488-01 (2006), it lists Type I as 99.9% gold min. This is not correct. Type I is 99.7%. Type III is 99.9%. The ASTM B488 was revised to match the gold purity types in the MIL-G-45204 standard.


1 The Technical Introduction to the Third Edition
2 Ultrasonic Bonding Systems and Technologies Including a Description of the Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Mechanism
3 Bonding Wire Metallurgy and Characteristics That Can Affect Bonding Reliability or Testing
4 Wire Bond Testing
5 GoldAluminum Intermetallic Compounds and Other Metallic Interface Reactions in Wire Bonding
6 Introduction to Plating Section A Gold and Section B NickelBased Bond Pad Technology and Reliability
7 Cleaning to Improve Bondability and Reliability
8 Mechanical Problems in Wire Bonding
9 Advanced and Specialized Wire Bonding Technologies
10 An Overview of the Materials and Material Science of Copper Lowk Devices that Affect Bonding and Packaging
11 Wire Bonding Process Modeling and Simulation

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About the author (2009)

George G. Harman is a Fellow of the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Semiconductor Electronics Division.

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