When Cooperation Fails: The International Law and Politics of Genetically Modified Foods
The transatlantic dispute over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has brought into conflict the United States and the European Union, two long-time allies and economically interdependent democracies with a long record of successful cooperation. Yet the dispute - pitting a largely acceptant US against an EU deeply suspicious of GMOs - has developed into one of the most bitter and intractable transatlantic and global conflicts, resisting efforts at negotiated resolution andresulting in a bitterly contested legal battle before the World Trade Organization.Professors Pollack and Shaffer investigate the obstacles to reconciling regulatory differences among nations through international cooperation, using the lens of the GMO dispute. The book addresses the dynamic interactions of domestic law and politics, transnational networks, international regimes, and global markets, through a theoretically grounded and empirically comprehensive analysis of the governance of GM foods and crops. They demonstrate that the deeply politicized, entrenched andpath-dependent nature of the regulation of GMOs in the US and the EU has fundamentally shaped negotiations and decision-making at the international level, limiting the prospects for deliberation and providing incentives for both sides to engage in hard bargaining and to "shop" for favorable internationalforums. They then assess the impacts, and the limits, of international pressures on domestic US and European law, politics and business practice, which have remained strikingly resistant to change.International cooperation in areas like GMO regulation, the authors conclude, must overcome multiple obstacles, legal and political, domestic and international. Any effective response to this persistent dispute, they argue, must recognize both the obstacles to successful cooperation, and the options that remain for each side when cooperation fails.
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Biotechnology Risk Regulation and the Failure of Cooperation
Why the US and EU Biotech Regulatory Regimes Differ
3 The Promise and Failure of Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation through Networks
4 Deliberation or Bargaining? Distributive Conflict and the Fragmented International Regime Complex
Change Continuity and Lack of Convergence
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actors adopted agencies Agreement agricultural agricultural biotechnology animals application approach approval argue authority bans biotech biotechnology Body challenge Chapter choices Codex Commission committee common concerns consumer continue contrast cooperation Council countries created decision decision-making deliberation developing Directive discussion domestic effects environment environmental EU’s Europe European evidence example existing farmers food safety foods and crops framework genetically global GM crops GM foods GM varieties GMOs groups impact important industry institutional interests IPPC issues judicial labeling largely legislation majority measures meeting member-state negotiations noting officials Organization panel particular parties plant political positive potential preferences pressures principle procedures proposed protection question regarding regimes regulation regulatory relations remain Report requirements respective result risk assessment role rules scientific sides SPS Agreement standards tion trade transatlantic