Whose Reality Counts?: Putting the First Last
In this sequel to "Rural Development: Putting the last first" Robert Chambers argues that central issues in development have been overlooked, and that many past errors have flowed from domination by those with power.
Development professionals now need new approaches and methods for
interacting, learning and knowing. Through analyzing experience - of past mistakes and myths, and of the continuing methodological revolution of PRA (participatory rural appraisal) - the author points towards solutions.
In many countries, urban and rural people alike have shown an astonishing ability to express and analyze their local, complex and diverse realities which are often at odds with the top-down realities imposed by professionals. The author argues that personal, professional and institutional change is essential if the realities of the poor are to receive greater recognition. Self-critical awareness and changes in concepts, values, methods and behaviour must be developed to explore the new high ground of participation and empowerment.
"Whose Reality Counts?" presents a radical challenge to all concerned
with development, whether practitioners,researchers or policy-makers, in all organizations and disciplines, and at all levels from fieldworkers to the heads of agencies. With its thrust of putting the first last it presents a new, exciting and above all practical agenda for future development which cannot be ignored.
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The Transfer of Reality
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action ActionAid activities agricultural analysis applied approaches and methods Bangladesh behaviour and attitudes beliefs cent challenge Chapter comm complex contrast countries criteria diagramming diverse dominance dynamic economic economists empower enable environments errors example experience express facilitators farmers farming systems forest gender groups income India Institute interaction interviews irrigation Jeremy Swift judgement Kenya Kissidougou Prefecture knowledge learning less livelihood lowers Machakos District ment Model-T Nepal NGOs normal professionalism numbers organizations outsiders overclass paradigm participation participatory mapping Participatory Rural Appraisal physical poor poverty practice priorities problems profes programmes questionnaire surveys ranking realities reductionism reversals RRA Notes Rural Appraisal rural development self-critical Shah sharing social South Sri Lanka staff sustainable Tamil Nadu Tanzania things tions toolcarriers top-down trees unpredictable upper-lower uppers values village visual vulnerable wealth well-being women woodfuel World Bank Zambia Zimbabwe ZOPP