The Hadal Zone: Life in the Deepest Oceans
The hadal zone represents one of the last great frontiers in marine science, accounting for 45% of the total ocean depth range. Despite very little research effort since the 1950s, the last ten years has seen a renaissance in hadal exploration, almost certainly as a result of technological advances that have made this otherwise largely inaccessible frontier, a viable subject for research. Providing an overview of the geology involved in trench formation, the hydrography and food supply, this book details all that is currently known about organisms at hadal depths and linkages to the better known abyssal and bathyal depths. New insights on how, where and what really survives and thrives in the deepest biozone are provided, allowing this region to be considered when dealing with sustainability and conservation issues in the marine environment.
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abyssal depths abyssal plains amphipods Atlantic baited traps Banda bathyal Belyaev benthic biological Bivalvia Blankenship Bougainville camera Cayman Challenger Deep courtesy of HADEEP Crustacea decapods deepest depth range diversity earthquake Elpidia endemic environments Eurythenes gryllus FAMILY fish Fujii full ocean depth Galathea expedition Gastropoda genera genus gigas habitats hadal depths hadal fauna hadal trenches hadal zone Hadal-Lander Hessler Hirondellea holothurians hydrostatic pressure increase isopods Izu-Bonin Trench Jamieson Japan Kuril–Kamchatka Japan Trench Java Kaikō Kermadec Trench kermadecensis kmĀ2 known Kuril–Kamchatka Kuril–Kamchatka Japan Kuril–Kamchatka Kuril–Kamchatka Kuril–Kamchatka Trench lander Lemche liparids Mariana Trench marine North Pacific Number of species observed organisms Pacific Ocean Palau Peru–Chile Trench Philippine Trench piezophilic Priede Puerto-Rico Trench relatively Romanche Ryukyu samples San Cristobal scavenging seafloor sediment shallower slope South Sandwich specimens subduction surface temperature TMAO Tonga Trench trawl trench axis vertical Vitjaz wire Wolff Yayanos