Enzymes in Food Processing

Front Cover
Gregory A. Tucker, L.F.J. Woods
Springer Science & Business Media, 1995 - Technology & Engineering - 319 pages
Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of enzymes as food processing tools, as an understanding of their means of control has improved. Since publication of the first edition of this book many new products have been commercially produced and the corresponding number of published papers has swollen. This second edition has been fully revised and updated to cover changes in the last five years. It continues to provide food technologists, chemists, biochemists and microbiologists with an authoritative, practical and detailed review of the subject.
 

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Contents

Fundamentals of enzyme activity
1
13 Enzyme nomenclature
5
14 Enzyme purification and assay
7
15 Enzyme kinetics
9
152 Substrate concentration
12
153 Environmental conditions
17
154 Inhibitors activators and cofactors
19
16 Enzyme immobilisation
21
673 Specific actions of proteases on gluten
205
674 Application of proteases
206
675 Modification of wheat gluten by proteases
208
68 Pentosanases
209
681 Sources of hemicellulases used in the baking industry
210
683 Applications of pentosanases
211
684 Summary
212
69 Lipases
213

17 Genetic engineering
22
References
24
Enzymes in the food industry
26
22 Commercialisation of enzyme processes
27
23 Alternative methods to the use of enzymes
29
24 Accessibility of substrate to enzyme
30
25 Types of reaction
31
26 Reaction conditions
33
27 Source of enzymes
34
28 Legal and safety implications
35
29 Use of enzymes
37
References
39
Food enzymes and the new technology
41
312 Mutagenesis to provide tailored enzymes
42
313 Solvent engineering to alter enzyme specificity
46
314 Abzymes
51
32 Understanding how protein structure controls function
59
33 Relating structure to function
71
331 Sitedirected mutagenesis and early examples of protein engineering
73
332 Protein engineering to change thermal stability of enzymes
74
333 Protein engineering studies of protein folding
87
334 Design of ab initio proteins
88
335 Computational methods used to guide mutagenesis
94
336 Mutagenesis of genetic material to adjust protein structure
95
337 Expression of protein
98
338 Purification methods for recombinant engineered and native protein used for food processing
101
34 A rational approach to reactions in organic solvents
104
35 Can abzymes become as efficient and economical as enzymes?
105
Enzymes in milk and cheese production
114
422 Lactose hydrolysis
116
423 Use of enzymes for determining milk quality
118
424 The role of indigenous enzymes in the manufacturing quality of milk
122
43 Enzymes in relation to cheese manufacture
125
433 Exogenous enzymes
127
434 Enzymes in cheese preservation
137
44 Concluding remarks
138
Acknowledgements
140
5 Enzymes in the meat industry
144
52 Development of rigor
145
53 Loss of rigor stiffness
147
55 Connectivetissue weakening
151
561 Proteinases active at neutral pH
152
562 Proteinases active at acid pH
159
57 Interaction of muscle proteinases in conditioning
163
58 Effect of age and growth rate on muscle proteinases and meat quality
168
59 Tenderising enzymes
170
510 Enzymic recovery processes
177
511 Conclusions
178
References
179
6 Enzymes in the baking industry
190
62 The need for problem solvers
192
64 Regulations
193
65 The use of enzymes in the baking industry
194
66 Starchdegrading enzymes
195
663 Application of starchdegrading enzymes
196
664 Summary
200
671 Source of proteases
202
610 Oxidoreductases
214
6102 Glucose oxidase sulfliydryl oxidase
215
6103 Summary
216
6112 Keep your process constant
217
References
218
7 Enzymes in the production of beverages and fruit juices
223
73 Cocoa
227
74 Beer and whisky
228
75 Wine
230
76 Cider
232
77 Apple juice
235
78 Endogenous fruit enzymes
239
79 Other noncitrus fruits
242
710 Citrus juice processing
243
711 Citrus debittering
244
712 Other enzymic applications
246
713 Conclusion
247
Enzymes in the starch and sugar industries
250
82 Applications of hydrolytic enzymes in starch and sugar conversions
253
823 Partial starch hydrolysisthe enzymic production of lowdextroseequivalent maltodextrins
257
83 Applications of nonhydrolytic enzymes in starch and sugar conversions
258
832 Glucose oxidase
260
833 Branching enzyme
261
84 Production of fine chemicals by enzymic conversions of starch and sugars
262
842 Synthesis of sugar esters
264
85 Conclusion
266
9 Enzymes in the processing of fats and oils
268
92 Structure and function of lipases
269
93 Specificity of lipases
273
94 Stability of lipases
274
95 Lipases in the interface
275
96 Noninterfacial uses of lipases
277
98 The dairy industry
279
910 Hydrolysis of triglycerides
280
911 Interesterification and randomisation
281
912 Manipulation of fats other than by lipases
286
914 Glycolipids
287
917 Conclusions
288
10 Enzymes as diagnostic tools
292
102 Enzyme kinetics in relation to diagnosis
293
103 Unlabelled enzymes in diagnosis
295
1032 Applications in food microbiology
296
104 Enzymes as analytical aids
299
105 Enzyme conjugates used in diagnosis
300
1051 Choice of enzymes
301
1053 Choice of enzyme substrates
302
1061 Performance characteristics of EIA
303
1062 Enhanced EIA
304
107 Nonmicrobiological applications of enzyme conjugates
305
1073 Vitamin analysis
306
1074 Other potential applications
307
1082 Nucleic acid probes for hybridisation assays
308
1083 Catalytic antibodies abzymes
309
References
310
Index
315
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