From Provincia Arabia to Palaestina Tertia: The Impact of Geography, Economy, and Religion on Sedentary and Nomadic Communities in the Later Roman Province of Third Palestine
This dissertation investigates the complex interaction between geography, economy, and religion amongst the sedentary and nomadic populations in the later Roman province of Third Palestine from the fourth to the early seventh centuries C.E. Specifically, it demonstrates that the regions which formed the province of Third Palestine in the fourth century -- the Sinai Peninsula, the Negev desert, and southern Jordan -- acted as a liminal space, situated between the Mediterranean world and the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea basin. As such, the communities of Third Palestine played an intermediary role between these regions, and the province was inhabited by two different cultural groups, agricultural and nomadic. Extensive trade with the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula is also demonstrated, as is the evidence of interregional trade within Third Palestine based on evidence from the Nessana Papyri and four types of amphorae (Gaza, Palestinian Bag Jar, Egyptian, and Aila).
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Geography and Economy
Religion and Transformation
agricultural Aila Aila amphorae al-Hasa Ammonius Ammonius CPA amphorae Antoninus Placentinus Arabic archaeological argues attested Augustopolis autem Biblical events Blemmyes Bostra Bowersock Byzantine caravan Christian church Clysma Colt constructed Cosmas Dahari describes desert discovered document Edited Egeria Egypt Elusa Eusebius evidence excavations Exodus Fiema fourth century Frosen Gaza amphorae Greek holy important inhabitants inscription Iotabe Islamic Israelites Jerome Jerusalem journey Kerak Kerak Plateau Khirbet late antiquity literary sources located martyrs Mayerson Meccan mentioned merchants monastery monastic communities monasticism monks Moses Mount Sinai mountain Nabataean Narrationes Negev Nilus nomadic Onomasticon pagan Palaestina Palestinian Bag Jars Peninsula period Petra Peutinger Table Pharan Pharanites pilgrimage pilgrims Placentinus Procopius province of Third Pseudo-Nilus Raithou Raphidim Red Sea region Relatio Roman Empire route Saint Catherine's Monastery Saracens scholars sedentary sixth century solidi Solzbacher southern Jordan suggests Syria tcov temple Third Palestine trade Translated tt\s Zoora